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Pilgrims Sail Amidst Many Warnings — Pernicious Tipping Sys- 
tem on the Ship — Seasickness Remedies — Party's Chief 
Amusement on the Ocean — The Sunday-School Class and Its 
Personnel — A Domino Expert Humiliated — The Judge and the 
Donkey — Some Queer Types in the Smoking Room — A "Blow- 
hard" from New York — The Undertaker and the Liar — A Rheu- 
matic Rip Van Winkle — Several Species of Cranks — A Super- 
stitious Man and a Secret Order Fanatic — "The Young Voy- 
ager" Absent Minded — Study of Mankind on Shipboard — Petti- 
coated Candidates for Matrimony — Widows and Spinsters — 
Masons Organize on the Ocean — Some Rusty Brethren — Ship's 


We Sight Madeira's Coast — Urchins Dive for Money — Beautiful 
Mountain Scenery — The City of Punchal — Primitive Methods 
of Locomotion — In a Land of Persistent Beggars — A Witty Lit- 
tle Girl Floors the Party's Historian — In the Footprints of 
Columbus — Ignorance of the People — Agriculture and Horti- 
culture — Fair Cadiz and Her People — Where Murillo Perished 
— Chilly Days in a Southern Clime— Salt Pyramids and Much- 
Abused Donkeys— A Ride to Venerable Seville — Last Rest- 
ing Place of America's Discoverer— Intense Farming— Absence 
of Song Birds— Memories of the Moors— The Cork Industry- 
Gibraltar and Its Monkeys— Heterogenous Population of the 


Algiers and Her Former Slaves— In the Arab Quarter and Among 
Its Fakirs— Malta and Her Romantic History— Valetta and Its 
Sculptured Guardian— The Church of St. John— In the Chapel 
of Bones— Grecian Isles and the Temple of Athena— Police- 
men Attired Like Ballet Girls— The Acropolis and the Parthe- 

non — Acres of Ruins — Mars Hill and Its Associations — Con- 
stantinople, the "Dogopolis" of the World — Mosque of Sancta 
Sophia and Other Points of Interest — Sights in the Grand 
Bazaar — Turkish Ladies — American Missionary Schools — 
"Smyrna, the Lovely" — Along the Route to Ephesus — Tobacco 
"Octopus" Agent Corners Licorice Market — Glimpses of Troy, 
Rhodes and Cyprus — Carmel, the Dwelling Place of David's 
Nabal — In the Land of the Prophets. 


Dr. S. D. Bartle's Description of the Holy Land — Two Days at 
Nazareth — Missionary Work Among Native Children — Weak- 
ness of the Turkish Government — Sea . of Galilee — Scenes in 
the Home of Our Lord — Dr. John D. Jordan's Visit to Places 
Made Sacred and Historic by Christ — Nazareth of To-Day — 
Traditions Told the Traveler — Valley of Esdraelon — Mount of 
Transfiguration and Hills of Gilboa — Place of the Sacrifice — 
Jacob's Well and the Mount of Olives — Tomb of the Sons of 
Levi — Dr. P. D. Powers' Beautiful Rhapsody on Nazareth — 
Cradle of Religion — Pestiferous Children. 


Jaffa, the Joppa of Scripture — Queer Antics of Oarsmen in the 
Harbor — History of the Town — Our Author Speculates About 
Noah's Ark — The Orient the Cradle of Some of Civilization's 
Bad Features — An "Obiter Dictum" on Trusts — Rose-Bedecked 
Hills — Ekron — First Sight of Jerusalem — As to the Site of 
Calvary — Supposed Tomb of Jesus — Church of the Holy Sepul- 
chre — Mount Olivet and Its Associations — Two Competing 


Mosque of Omar Occupies Site of Solomon's Temple — "The New 
Calvary" and Its Authenticity — Persistent cry, "Backsheesh,' 
Heard Even in Sacred Places — Disputed Points About the 
Garden of Gethsemane — Jews Bewailing the Desolation of 
Israel — Via Dolorosa — John Doorsy and His Wee Son, "Jorge' 
— Semi-Domesticated Ravens — A City that was Accursed — 
River Jordan — Desolate Dead Sea Neighborhood — Bethany — A 
Glimpse of the Mount of Temptation — Birthplace of Jesus. 


Alexandria and the Bay of Abukir — Rural Egypt a Land of Flies 
and Fertility — Irrigation Methods — Touching Scarab Beetles 
and Camels — Government Dispensary at Baliana — Ruins at 
Abydos— Egyptians of To-Day— Wished-for Crocodiles Never 
Appeared— Wonders at Karnack — Temple of Rameses — Thebes 
and Its Colossal Guards — Kings who Built Pyramids — The 
Ascent of Cheops — Facts About the Inscrutable Sphynx— 
Sights in Cairo — An Ostrich Farm. 


Mount /Etna, Naples and Vesuvius — Excavations at Pompeii — 
Among the Gamblers at Monte Carlo — Up the Rhine to Cologne 
— The Bishop and the Mice — Pilgrims See the Skulls of 11,000 
at the Church of St. Ursula — Foul Canals at Amsterdam — 
Sights in Holland — The Hague and Antwerp — Perley Seeks the 
"Circus" in London — Adventures in Ireland — Shandon Bells 
and Comments on Old St. John's Church — Blarney Castle and 
the Irish Girls — Westward, Ho! — Betting ,on Shipboard — A 
Prince of Liars — Old Virginia the Best of All. 



In submitting this hastily-prepared little volume to the 
critical public, the writer distinctly disavows any inten- 
tion of obtruding himself into the ranks of the "authors/' 
or of seeking, at his time of life, to snatch literary laurels. 
"You know me all, a plain, blunt man," and in this know- 
ledge of yours lies my salvation. 

The major portion of this chronicler's life has been 
spent in the mercantile world and not until the years had 
crept well up on him did he close his ledger to turn to 
pleasanter things. Then it was that he sought a well- 
earned recreaton in travel ; and this book is one of the 
results of his peregrinations. Its leaves quiver like the 
foliage of a wind-racked aspen at the mere suggestion 
"critics," and the very printer's ink between its covers 
becomes tearfully blurred at the thought of close scrutiny 
by those who go through libraries with Addisonian 

The writer claims only one accomplishment, which, in 
its peculiar line, he reckons second not even to those of 
the greatest rhetoricians — the ability to use his eyes. 
When he crossed the ocean and journeyed into foreign 
lands he saiv, and when not seeing, he listened. In a way 
his "optics" were a camera obscura and his ears the sensi- 
tive cylinders of a phonograph, so that what is submitted 
in these pages may be likened unto undeveloped photo- 
graphic films or the strident representations of a grapho- 
phone. In short, this chronicler would fain think that 
some of his defects are the reflected defects of other 
persons and other things. 

And be it said that if ever he had any conceit, those 


who read his manuscript in the rough have bludgeoned it 
out of him. In this respect, at least, he is like immortal 
John Bunyan, for it was that author who said : 

"Well, when I had put my ends together, 

I showed them others that I might see whether 

They would condemn them, or justify; 
And some said: Let them live; some, Let them die; 

Some said, John, print it; others said, Not so; 
Some said, It might do good; others said, No." 

Apropos of the foregoing lines, I recall that one cynical 
reader, scoffing at the vein of sentiment which underlies 
my whole nature, and noting the frequency with which 
I quote the poets and other literary exemplars, scornfully 
said: "Bosh, it's nothing but pedantry!' 7 To him this 
chronicler answered meekly: "Not pedantry, but its very 
antithesis, Modesty — an admission that others can say 
certain things a thousand times better I." 

Another "arbiter elegantiarum" has assailed what he 
calls the "spirit of iconoclasm" that pervades the writer's 
references to objects of interest in the Holy Land. "You 
tear down every idol," complained he. And so the writer 
hopes he does, for who* would not have the idols go? 
Wherever he has seen fraud or selfishness or greed or 
blind adherence to prejudice, he has sought, in his fashion, 
to expose them — yea, even at the Gates of Jerusalem. 
Christianity needs no accessories in the way of guide 
books, fanaticism, traditions or folklore. Far firmer are 
the foundations on which It stands. Sweep away all the 
Palestine the traveler sees to-day, and Christianity's 
pure, illumining ray will still shine as brightly and as 
serenely o'er the world as though the winds had over- 
turned but an anthill. 

In this connection, too, the writer would say that his 
book equals any he has ever seen in the force of its 


references to the Holy Land, for not trnsting his own 
ability to describe so important a subject, he called for 
aid from the pens of certain preacher friends — the Rev. 
S. D. Bartle, of Meehanicsville, Iowa ; the Rev. Dr. John 
D. Jordan, of Savannah, Ga., and the Rev. Dr. F. D. 
Power, of Washington, D. C. The result has been three 
contributions which could not be surpassed in beauty and 
grace of diction or in their dignified spirit of reverence. 
Unquestionably these constitute the most pleasing feature 
of this volume. 

Last of all, the author begs to say that he will feel 
deeply flattered by the attention of all probable or pros- 
pective readers, but he beseeches no one to read his 
volume. His family and a dear little circle of friends, 
as well as some of his companions in distant fields, have 
pledged the book their moral support. And this will 
suffice even though vanity crave more. 

J. S. M. 


Pilgrims Sail Amidst Many Warnings — Pernicious Tipping 
System on the Ship — Seasickness Remedies — Party's Chief 
Amusement on the Ocean — The Sunday-School Class and its 
Personnel — A Domino Expert Humiliated — The Judge and the 
Donkey — Some Queer Types in the Smoking-Room — A "Blow- 
hard" from New York — The Undertaker and the Liar — A 
Rheumatic Rip Van Winkle — Several Species of Cranks — A 
Superstitious Man and a Secret Order Fanatic — "The Young 
Voyager" Absent Minded — Study of Mankind on Shipboard — 
Petticoated Candidates for Matrimony — Widows and Spinsters 
— Masons Organize on the Ocean — Some Rusty Brethren — 
Ship's Larder. 

After I had made my arrangements to take the Mediter- 
ranean and Orient trip in February, 1906, under the 
auspices of Mr. Frank C. Clark in the specially chartered 
White Star Line steamer Arabic, and again to cross the 
briny deep, I received a letter from one of my friends 
saying it was possible he might never see me alive again, 
but hoped to meet me in "a land that is fairer than this." 
A gentleman with whom I was negotiating a land transac- 
tion demurred to my suggestion about putting it off until 
my return, and insisted upon a consummation of the deal 
before my departure. He, too, alluded to the uncertainty 
of life, etc., while still another friend, on the eve of my 
departure, inquired if I had made my will. These Job's 
comforters gave me pause and quite naturally made me 
ask myself the question: Have I developed symptoms of 
senility, or reached the sixth or seventh ages, so graphi- 
cally described by the immortal bard ? 

I parted with several of my teeth years ago, and have 
been compelled to use glasses for some time, but I did 
not think my "natural force abated" to such an extent as 
to warrant the interest and concern manifested by my 


friends, or the seeming inference that I had at last 
attained the "sere and yellow leaf of old age and decrepi- 
tude. Under the combined pressure above alluded to I 
could but ask myself if I had overestimated my vigor and 
powers of endurance ; but I am happy to state that I not 
only survived the trip, but returned physically improved 
and in a better state of health than when I left. I trust 
also that I am yet in possession of mens sana in corpore 

To sum things up, I did not miss a meal, nor was I 
sick a day either going or coming. Our immediate party 
consisted of my son, Harry T. Moore, whom we dubbed 
"The Young Voyager," as this was his first trip abroad; 
J. Vincent Perley, of Charlottesville, Va., and the writer. 

We who came from the cities found it very delightful 
once more to breathe the pure, salt-laden atmosphere and 
to feel our lungs expanding under its stimulating and 
exhilarating influence. The weather was quite cold; in 
fact, uncomfortably cold during the entire trip, except on 
the ISTile, as the boat was insufficiently heated — a piece of 
negligence which caused many passengers to contract 
colds. Whilst there was a feeling of expectancy and 
anticipation before us — 

"I can't but say it is an awkward sight 
To see one's native land receding through 
The growing waters; it unmans one quite." 

The Arabic is a magnificent ship, 600 feet long, and 
large in proportion. It is fitted up with libraries, smoking- 
rooms, barber-shops, etc., and its elegance justifies me in 
describing it as a floating hotel. 

It took us a day or two to get our sea legs, obtain our 
bearings and make acquaintances. The sea for the first 
day or two was smooth and quiet and we held our course — 


"As idle as a painted ship 
Upon a painted ocean," 

for Neptune and his trident amiably remained quiet in 
the depths below in his emerald caves. 

The Arabic being an English ship, we were struck with 
some of the singularities of her people: For instance, 
we wanted some water without going to our staterooms 
for it, and naturally expected to find it in the library or 
smoking-room. But to quote the "Ancient Mariner" again 
there was — 

"Water, water everywhere, 
Nor any drop to drink." 

This incident reminded us of the old Mother Goose 
melody which runs "houseful, yardful, but can't get a 

Another curious thing struck us — we could not under- 
stand why the White Star r Line should pay its servants 
insufficient wages and thus make them dependent upon 
"tips," in other words, encourage them to blackmail the 
passengers. Let me say here that this practice creates 
dissatisfaction both among servants and passengers. 

Some Americans, having more money than judgment, 
would give their steward an unreasonable sum for his 
services, which were understood to be included in the 
cruise ; others were not financially able to give the same 
amount and thus discontent was caused. 

I will relate my own experience with my saloon 
steward: The second day out I offered him a dollar and 
told him that if he showed me proper attention I would 
give him a dollar a week during the trip. He remarked 
that he did not think this was enough, to which I made 
no reply. The next day he came to me with an insolent 
air and stated he wanted two dollars a week; that he 
needed money for his family. 


I replied that I had nothing to do with his family; 
that I had paid my passage money as a first-class pas- 
senger, which embraced his services, and that if he men- 
tioned the matter to me again during the trip I would 
not give him a cent. As I was very positive, and he saw 
I could not be bulldozed, further annoyance was spared 
me ; but when on quitting the ship I placed a sovereign 
in his hand he took it with a most ungracious air. 

We paid our bedroom steward a sovereign and a half. 
He demanded more. We declined to give more, where- 
upon he said he would not attend to the delivery of our 
luggage to the baggagemaster when the ship arrived at 
Liverpool, we leaving the ship at Nice and our baggage 
going on to Liverpool. In addition to this it was expected 
that each passenger would give a fee to the baggagemaster, 
the deck steward, the bath steward, the chief steward, the 
smoking-room steward and the stewardess, as well as con- 
tribute to the band for the very poor music furnished on 
the trip. 

Towards the end of the journey some enthusiastic 
American actually proposed making up a purse of $1,000 
for the captain of the ship. An amendment was sug- 
gested that we also be permitted to pay for the fuel used 
so sparingly on the vessel, since we had all suffered from 
colds. The proposition to give the captain a thousand 
dollars was tabled. 

In concluding my comments along this line, let me say 
the whole system is a disgrace to the service. Any first- 
class passenger would prefer paying $50 more for his 
ticket rather than be annoyed in this way. 

"The Young Voyager" for the first day or two, having, 
we suppose, left his heart in the keeping of some fair 
damsel at home, went around softly humming in accents 


sweet and low a melancholy air, the words of which I 
could not catch. And occasionally, too, a gentle sigh 
would escape him, while a tinge of seriousness rested on 
his comely features, and a moisture bedewed his vision, 
causing "a feeling of sadness to come o'er him which his 
spirit could not resist." But in a few days he was making 
"goo-goo" eyes at some of the ship's beauties, to whom 
he devoted himself assidously, with the result that he 
became more cheerful. 

Perley, in remembrance of his trip with us to Cuba the 
year before, when he thought he would die of mat de mer 
on the Gulf of Mexico, provided himself in ~New York 
with "a sovereign remedy" for seasickness. This remedy, 
for which he paid 75 cents, was warranted never to fail, 
but on investigation it proved to be an ordinary Seidlitz 
pow r der, w r orth just 5 cents. When the day came for him 
to "cast his bread upon the waters" we had a good laugh 
at him. r 

On the Arabic we had about 650 passengers, classified 
as follows: Thirty-four preachers, seven "honorables," 
one general, two colonels, one major, ten physicians, about 
four hundred women and children and the rest men of 
various professions and vocations. Among the "honor- 
ables" were included two or three judges. The paucity 
of jurists and colonels was probably due to the fact that 
there were comparatively few Southerners aboard. 

Our passengers hailed from nearly every State in the 
Union. There were in our ship's company many pleasant, 
sociable ladies and gentlemen, some w T ise and some other- 
wise ; some polite and some courteous, and alas, also a few 
with vinegar-visaged countenances and sour-faced features, 
who had a supply of rudeness constantly on tap, from 
which they drew at random. One remembering the 
famous epigram applied to Charles the Second might have 
been justified in supposing that these disagreeable folk 


Never said a polite thing 
And never did a wise one. 

But the majority of our companions were pleasant and 
agreeable, and we soon found that "a life on the ocean 
wave" was associated with most pleasing environments. 

In a few days "affinities'' were formed upon the basis 
of natural attractions and the congenialities of kindred 
spirits, thus demonstratng the old adage that "birds of a 
feather flock together." A coterie of congenial souls 
gradually gathered in the smaller smoking-room, the 
recognized leader being a minister, and we organized what 
was called "the Sunday School Class." 

The chief occupation of this organization was playing 
cards and dominoes, relating anecdotes, experiences, etc., 
and taking now and then a glass of Bass's ale, ginger ale, 
or an occasional "Scotch." But I never saw a man in 
this party under the influence of liquor and never any 
actual gambling. All the games were played purely for 
amusement and to kill time. 

So far as my knowledge and observation went, there 
was less drinking and gambling on this ship during the 
entire cruise than on any other I ever sailed in. 

As it might be unpleasant to call the names of the 
gentlemen constituting "the Sunday School Class," I will 
designate them by States or cities, as I attempt in a 
facetious vein to present a pen picture of some of them. 
The idiosyncracies of one individual may appear under 
different heads, too, thus showing several characteristics 
in the same person. These pictures may be recognized 
by the members of the "class," and if the invocation of 
Bobby Burns — 

"O wad some power the giftie gie us, 
To see ourselves as others see us" — 

is realized, each may pick out his own portrait. 


In the game of dominoes "The Young Voyager" and 
the gentleman from Charlottesville were generally pitted 
against the gentleman from Philadelphia and the writer. 
Early in the voyage the gentleman from. Charlottesville, 
with a self-sufficient air and vaunting manner, said : "If 
there is one game I can play it is dominoes." We played 
day after day and night after night and at first with 
varying fortunes. But after a while the gentleman from 
Philadelphia and the writer got the whip hand of their 
opponents and beat the gentleman from Charlottesville 
and "The Young Voyager" so badly that we demonstrated 
beyond a doubt that there was no game so little under- 
stood by them as dominoes. 

Their defeat became a standing joke, and when the 
"class" assembled, or when any of its members met the 
gentleman from Charlottesville he was regaled with the 
mockery, "if there is any r One game I can play it is 
dominoes." Finally he wished he had never seen a 

On one occasion later on when we were visiting a certain 
cathedral in Europe, the priest began repeating from the 
Litany the words, "Agnus dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, 
exaudi nos Domine" whereupon the Charlottesville repre- 
sentative turned to us and said, "I wonder how he found 
out I said I could play dominoes! The last game of note 
we played before the gentleman from Charlottesville sur- 
rendered and revoked his assertion, the score was 64 to 
32 — this was his Waterloo! 

This worthy from the Albemarle capital, be it under- 
stood, was conceded to be the best natured man on board. 
ISTo amount of badinage, no joke or pranks could ruffle 
his temper or cause him to show anger or resentment. He 
labored under a complaint, diagnosed cacoethes loquendi, 
and owing to this fact, he was known as the "Rattler." 


He also deluded himself with the belief that he was a 
chronic sufferer from insomnia, whereas the fact was that 
if his tongue was not wagging he was not only somnolent 
but sound asleep. He might be snoring vociferously, but 
if aroused would declare that he had not been asleep — 
simply resting his eyes. And in this assertion he really 
seemed to be entirely sincere. 

The gentleman from Philadelphia was a clergyman, 
not overburdened with religion, but full of pleasant anec- 
dotes, "wise saws and modern instances." And like Gold- 
smith's Schoolmaster — 

"E'en though vanquished, he could argue still." 

In truth he was a jolly companion. 

Then we had the Judge from far-away Wisconsin — a 
quiet, sedate gentleman, having the courage of his con- 
victions, but conservative and deliberate in the expression 
of them, as becomes the mind judicial. The Judge was 
not without a sense of humor, however, as was evidenced 
by the fact that he was the only man known to have gotten 
ahead of a donkey. This incident occured in the desert 
near Luxor. He and this chronicler were riding at a 
canter, our animals under the lash of the driver, or donkey 
boy, when my stirrup leather broke and off I went side- 
ways into the sand. The Judge's boy, expecting largess 
in the way of increased "backsheesh," said to the Judge : 
"Your donkey, good donkey — his donkey (pointing to 
mine) bad donkey." Pleased with this information our 
friend, the jurist — 

"Had just been proclaiming his donkey's renown 
For vigor, for spirit, for one thing or other — 
When lo! 'mid his praises, the donkey came down" — 

and the Judge went over his head in the most graceful 


fashion. The rider stood poised on his head in as 
dignified a manner as the circumstances would admit of 
for a second or two, and then measured his full length 
on the desert. The Judge to this day avers he will never 
forget how long that donkey's ears appeared as he passed 
between them in his descent. 

This good jurist was also a little testy on occasions, 
and when inordinately importuned for "backsheesh" would 
lose his temper. At Jerusalem, having found this weak 
spot in his generally well-regulated and equable poise, 
we set the beggars on him, particularly the women with 
babies in their arms. If the truth must be told, we 
informed these pests that he was a widower, carried the 
purse and was the moneyed man of the crowd. 

The Judge would hastily beat a retreat from his 
tormentors. On one occasion he had gotten some distance 
from his persecutors, when he turned and saw his own 
shadow. This he mistook for an applicant for "back- 
sheesh," so he waved his hand with an impatient gesture 
and bade the shadow begone. But it still pursued him 
until he got out of the sunlight. 

On another occasion, at the Pyramids, he was sur- 
rounded and set upon by a gang of Arabs, and had to 
threaten to strike with his cane before he could get clear 
of them. His determined and resolute manner prevented 
his tormentors from again annoying him. We are satis- 
fied that the Judge's ermine was as spotless when he 
retired from the bench as when he assumed it, for his 
character was stainless and all his actions above reproach. 

In our party we had a pilgrim from "bleeding Kansas," 
a pleasant gentleman who liked his joke as well as the 
rest of us, and occasionally got off one on the gentleman 
from Charlottesville. This jocund Kansan had his wife 
with him and consequently was not with the "class" as 
frequently as he otherwise might have been. 


There was also the gentleman from Kochester with his 
congested liver and enlarged spleen — the cynic of the 
crowd — whose naw had a peculiar snarl that grated on 
one's nerves like the rasping of a file. At first, he seemed 
a regular Ishmaelite and his ill temper stuck out "like 
quills upon the fretful porcupine. " Indeed, he was heard 
to express the wish that the ship would sink with every one 
on board, his wife included. He was bilious, very bilious, 
this gentleman, but after he had associated with the 
"class" for some days, he mellowed under the genial 
influence of the gentleman from St. Louis, and became 
quite congenial. Once in a while he actually smiled., 
This cynic was in the insurance business, and perhaps his 
condition was occasioned by the investigations and revela- 
tions then going on in New York. 

One of the most congenial of all the "class" was the 
gentleman from St. Louis, who, by the quality of his 
anecdotes, easily won the distinction of being "The 
Decameron" of the smoking-room. He was an English- 
man by birth — but only by birth, for he was thoroughly 
Americanized, and could give, take and appreciate a joke, 
a faculty not generally possessed by the people of his 
native land. 

The chaffing and rasping he gave the gentleman from 
~New York city was truly amusing; when the two began 
to spar, and in a good-natured way abuse each other, the 
rest looked to see the wool fly with smiling faces. It was 
a case of Greek meeting Greek. The gentleman from St. 
Louis, like Fitz James when he met Ehoderick Dhu, 
would face the gentleman from ISTew York with a "come- 
one-come-all ! this-rock-shall-fly-f rom-its-firm-base-as~soon- 
as-I" expression, and the wordy contest would begin. The 
intellectual sparks of humor emitted in these combats 
were exhilarating and entertaining. As a rule, the gentle- 


man from New York at first had the best of these 
pleasant contests. He would compare the great metropolis 
with St. Louis, belittle the Missouri town and ask where 
it was, whether it was on the map, etc., etc. He would 
likewise compare the wealth, commerce and importance 
of Greater New York, the great clearing-house of America, 
with that of St.. Louis. All of this the gentleman from 
St. Louis would take with his usual good nature, but on 
one occasion he remarked to the New Yorker: "You 
remind me of the city you hail from ; you are a fair type 
of your people; you are as pompous and as much of an 
air-bag as the average Gothamite ; you think the sun rises 
and sets for New York alone ; you would have the entire 
nation pay tribute by making everything exported from 
or imported into the country pass through her gates. 
But/' added he with a kindling eye, "we of the West 
have begun to shake off the shackles of slavery that once 
bound us to the octopus of greed, and by the .heavens, we 
will be free of her I" 

This speech floored the New Yorker for a while, but 
he came back with statistics, and the usual arguments in 
favor of New York as the great metropolitan center of 
the nation, until his opponent was silenced. But when 
we reached Naples the gentleman from St. Louis scored 
a victory over the New Yorker. In that city, the 
Gothamite purchased, at a great bargain, six Italian silk 
umbrellas, and in triumph brought one of them to the 
smoking-room to show the gentleman from St. Louis, who 
is a dry goods merchant, and asked him what he thought 
of the purchase. 

The umbrella was carefully examined, . and without 
cracking a smile, the gentleman from St. Louis remarked 
that it was worth about one dollar, and that he would 
give $5 for the half dozen. "Why, you old humbug," 


replied the New Yorker, "they cost me $4 each; the 
regular price was $5." 

The purchaser was assured that he was badly stuck. 
Such umbrellas, said the Missouri man, might be worth 
$5 in Naples or New York, but he sold better in St. 
Louis for one dollar. This took the wind out of the New 
Yorker, and he was the most crestfallen individual I ever 
saw. When the "class" would ask him "how about those 
umbrellas ?" he would become discreetly silent. 

The gentleman from New York may not be a good 
judge of umbrellas, but as an interpreter of German and 
Italian, it would afford me great pleasure to recommend 
him to the government as ambassador or plenipotentiary 
extraordinary to either of the above mentioned countries. 
What he could not say to them by word of mouth, he could 
certainly convey by mysterious and occult signs. He and 
his daughter were two of the most agreeable persons on 
board the ship. 

There was a member of the "class," an undertaker, who 
believed in combining business with pleasure, and by way 
of advertisement he stated that in hie establishment he 
had a most elegant "royal purple coffin" in which he laid 
out the remains of those entrusted to his care, preliminary 
to their encasement in their final resting places. He also 
stated that he had a fine "rubber-neck hearse" with a 
modern invention for silently lowering the coffin into the 
tomb. In fact, he pictured this grave subject in such 
glowing colors that he figuratively strewed the pathway 
to the cemetery with flowers. Moreover, he intimated 
that if any of the party could make it convenient "to 
shuffle off this mortal coil" at his place he would see him 
decently and properly planted at popular and reasonable 
rates. This gentleman actually invited a young lady to 
his city, assuring her that if she should die it would afford 


him pleasure to see her obsequies beautifully performed. 
She sweetly declined his generous hospitality, and begged 
to be excused. 

But the funereal gentleman occasionally indulged in 
hyperbole, too. He told of a town he once visited that 
had eighty-six manufacturing establishments, despite a 
population of only twenty-five hundred. Some of the 
mathematicians present got to work on this, and demon- 
strated, after deducting the women and children, those 
engaged in other occupations, negroes, etc., that it left but 
ten employees to each factory, including the boss, clerk, 
porter and stenographer. But the undertaker stuck to 
his tale. 

This gentleman was not only a "romancer," but, like 
Joseph of old, "a dreamer of dreams." He would tell 
of the most extraordinary compliments some one had 
paid him, and as they were. all drawn from his imagina- 
tion, he was dubbed the "unconscious liar.". The word, 
be it understood, is used in no offensive sense, for he 
appeared to be entirely unconscious of the absurdity of 
his statements. He imagined things and really believed 
them. Ah ! he was a genial, good-natured fellow, and his 
society was far from boring. 

We also had another gentleman who lived in the moun- 
tains and who was pronounced "the amiable liar" (like- 
wise not offensively used), because he could tell yarns 
in the most innocent manner. He would, with his dark- 
brown eyes, look into yours, and tell, without batting a 
lid or cracking a smile, the most plausible of tales. He 
possessed, he said, a wonderful grapevine with which he 
had had remarkable adventures, and told other extraor- 
dinary rustic tales. His adventures at Monte Carlo, 
where he "dropped" exactly $326, were deeply interesting. 
This hyperbolical soul would suck his pipe, which he 


smoked almost incessantly, and spin out yarns in a gentle 
monotone, characteristic of his Southern idiom, and local 
vernacular. He was one of the most companionable 
fellows of the "class. " 

The next character of interest in our organizaton was 
a gentleman from New Jersey, long past his prime, who 
in his youth was "one of the boys," but who, with the 
firmness of a rock, has for years ignored the follies of his 
earlier days, and could not now be tempted into danger. 
His lambent fires could only be aroused by a mesmeric 
incantaton of cabalastic words, accompanied by certain 
movements of the hands and fingers, known only to those 
initiated in the occult science of signs. 

When he made these signs and said "shish, shish," his 
eyes would temporarily light up with their wonted fires 
and his features would assume the hue of youth, as the 
flood tides of memory passed before his mental vision, 
as you have seen the glow return to the cheek of the old 
warrior when fighting o'er his battles again, or when the 
strain of some old martial air smites upon the ear of the 
scarred veteran of a hundred battles. 

This gentleman demonstrated to my mind the fact that 
great battles are fought and won within the arena of the 
human breast as well as upon the field of arms. He con- 
quered self. .But whatever self-restraint he practiced he 
played his game of euchre with the zest of youth. The 
fires of his once ardent manhood, however, have been 
cooled by years of experience, and are now in a state of 
repression. Firmness and decision of character arc 
stamped upon his features, and no temptation could induce 
him to plunge into his quondam excesses. 

We also had aboard a genial physician from the Old 
Dominion who was sick on every occasion when the sea 
was a little rough or the weather stormy. When he was 


prescribing for others, as he frequently did gratuitously, 
I several times called his attention to the injunction, 
"Physician, heal thyself," but it had no effect. And 
when he would caution his patient about eating, I reminded 
him of what St. Paul said, "When I have preached to 
others I keep my body in subjection lest that by any means, 
I myself should be a castaway." Yet, notwithstanding 
all this, he continued to preach to others and to cast away 
his own food upon the waters ! 

The Doctor discussed long and learnedly the skill of 
Galen, once the supreme authority in medical science, and 
the treatises of the "Hippoeratic collection." He believed 
in Sangrado's theory of the drinking of hot water, but did 
not have much confidence in his other pet scehme of 
profuse blood-letting. Our medical friend was inclined 
to ridicule the "pellet" system of the homeopathist, and 
occasionally referred to the subjectivity . of heteropathy, 
but was a firm advocate of allopathy in everything, and 
more particularly as it applies to the use of tobacco. This 
theory he exemplified in his own habits. He claimed with 
Bulwer, that smoking makes a man think like a sage and 
act like a Samaritan. The Doctor contended that the more 
a man smoked the greater his fecundity of generous and 
ennobling thoughts, and as a consequence, he was generally 
under the benign influence of the weed. He applied 
Pope's lines to this habit and acted accordingly : 

"A little learning is a dangerous thing; 
Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring; 
The shallow draughts intoxicate the brain, 
And drinking largely sobers us again." 

These influences made him very susceptible, and he fell 
in love with all the pretty women he saw — the liquid-eyed 
senorita of Spain, the raven-tressed beauties of Greece, 


the olive-tinted Turk, the cosmopolitan ladies of Cairo, 
and the fickle maids of la belle Paris. When he became 
weak or indifferent, all his companion, the gentleman from 
New Jersey, had to do was to utter that mysterious "shish, 
shish" with the usual sign and the Doctor was himself 

Some time after the "class" had been organized, there 
came into the smoking-room a gentleman of quiet and 
sedate manners, whose soft and gentle voice and courteous 
address proclaimed him a Southerner. There was a world 
of pathos and suppressed emotion in his sad brown eyes, 
and a touching and appealing smile on his gentle and 
earnest, but careworn, face.. He was suffering from 
nervous prostration and was taking the trip for recupera- 
tion and relaxation from the cares of business. His diges- 
tion was bad ; he could not sleep and had but a poor appe- 
tite. This chronicler warmed to him, and the Southerner 
proved himself to have a most lovable nature. He had 
beeen a great smoker, but now, by order of his doctor, 
eschewed tobacco in every shape. 

In the language of Macbeth, I bade him "throw physic 
to the dogs" and have "none of it," but join me in a smoke, 
which he did nearly every day to his relief and enjoyment. 
The sad-eyed voyager had left the Sunny South expecting 
warm and balmy breezes in Spain and on the Mediter- 
ranean, but so far had met with nothing but cold and dis- 
comfort on board ship. He was chilled and uncomfort- 
able. I induced him to join in our games, gave him a 
book to read and tried to get him to forget himself— and 
his troubles. Finally we got him to laughing and joking, 
and he became both mentally and physically improved. 

When he arrived at Malta it was cool, and when we 
reached other points it was still colder; but he fully 
expected to find warm and balmy weather under the sunny 


Italian skies at Naples. Alas ! the only warm object he 
saw there was the lava flowing from the creater of Mount 
Vesuvius. We parted at Naples. He said he was going 
to find a nice warm place for a month or two in or near 
Home. When a few days later I went to the Eternal 
City, and en route, saw the snow-capped hills and felt a 
breeze seemingly from "Greenland's icy mountains," I 
could but fancy how disapponted my friend would be. 
As I journeyed along the thought of him suggested these 
lines : 

"Gaily bedight 
A gallant knight 
In sunshine and shadow, 
Had journeyed long, 
Singing a song 
In search of warm weather. 

"But he grew cold, 
This knight so bold; 
O'er his heart a shadow 
Fell as he found 
No spot of ground 
That felt like warm weather" 

The wife of this gentleman is one of the most charming 
of women, whose amiable disposition and pleasant manners 
make her a delightful friend. 

Another "classman" was the gentleman from Ohio — 
our oldest member, and so venerable in appearance that 
we called him "Kip Van Winkle." But notwithstanding 
his age, he played his rubber at cards with the skill and 
enthusiasm of youth, and not infrequently was the victor. 

This representative of the Buckeye State, calm and 
quiet in manner, was at one period of his life so afnicted 
with rheumatism that he could neither walk nor use his 
hands. His physicians gave him up, as they could do 
nothing for him, but he had grit, and by sheer will power 


continued to work out his own salvation. He began by 
moving his limbs a fraction at a time. Day by day, and 
week after week, he kept this up until locomotion and the 
use of his hands were restored. He would have himself 
placed in a chair every day, and then would operate, as 
it were, on himself, until he unhinged his locked joints 
from the clasp of his dread enemy and finally got upon 
his feet. And now he walks, if not with the vigor of 
youth, certainly without any evidence of descrepitude. 
His is an heroic nature. To know such manly characters 
is a genuine pleasure. It is such men — men like Paul 
Jones, who "never give up the ship" — that ennoble 

The men described in the foregoing paragraphs con- 
stituted our " Sunday School Class." Of course, we had 
other habitutes of the smoking-room — many genial gentle- 
men who joined in games and conversation, but the charac- 
ters already sketched, though imperfectly drawn, were the 
most prominent features. 

I was told we had a gentleman on board who got "sea- 
sick" and lost his teeth. They said he was so unconven- 
tional as to dine the balance of the trip without a plate. 

Then there was a citizen who partook of all treats but 
was never known to re-treat. Like Marshal Ney, he was 
the bravest of the brave. 

We had a minister so very abstemious that he asked the 
steward if he could not take the brandy out of the mince 
pie and the plum pudding. 

Then, too, we had another crank who complained of his 
poor appetite, saying the food did not agree with him, but 
at every meal he ate heartily. On being asked why he ate 
when he neither liked nor relished his food, he replied 
that he was afraid lest provisions might run short, and 
as he might be put on limited rations, he thought it best 
to eat as long as the food held out. 


Then there was still another individual, who occa- 
sionally visited the smoking-room — one who was wdth us, 
but not of us. This person indulged in his favorite game 
of solitaire, a characteristic of selfishness. He appeared 
to find all the pleasure essential to his enjoyment in trying 
to make his left hand beat his right. This individual 
showed his rudeness and his boorish character on one occa- 
sion by crowding into a carriage that had been taken by 
three other gentlemen. He rushed in unbidden without 
even saying "By your leave." 

We had a dude, of course, and he affected the dress 
of the different countries he visited, reminding one of 
iEsop's fable about the ass in the lion's skin. This chap 
imagined himself the Beau Brummel of the cruise, when 
in fact he w^as being laughed at continually behind his 


An individual, whose rough aspirates and idiomatic 
expressions betrayed his Northern origin, sometimes 
dropped in. This gentleman rolled his r's with a remark- 
able continuity and a tiresome redundancy and superfluity, 
frequently supplementing his "r" with many er er-rars as 
well as errors. 

Most people aspirate the letter "h," but this particular 
mortal dwelt persistently on "r," which he rolled on his 
tongue as if it were a rich and delectable morsel of intel- 
lectual pabulum too precious to dispense with. He was 
one of those who "know it all," or at least thought he was. 
There was no subject "in the heavens above, the earth 
beneath or the waters below" that he would not tackle and 
argue on, if not to the entertainment and enlightenment of 
others, at least, to his own gratification and profound 
satisfaction. What he lacked in ratiocination and con- 
sistency he made up in gesticulation, boisterous talk and 
offers "to bet" he was right. 


He presented a conspicuous and illustrious example of 
that class who 

" — convinced against their will 
Are of the same opinion still." 

And we should not forget the superstitious crank who, 
before sitting down to table, always counted the guests to 
see if there were thirteen. This number he regarded as 
an unlucky one and nothing could induce him to be the 
thirteenth person or one of thirteen. He was fully per- 
suaded that some occult influence was associated with these 
mystic figures. Religiously he believed in omens, signs, 
portents and charms. The spilling of salt was an evil 
omen to him and to meet a funeral possession was bad 
luck. In other respects, however, this individual was 
reasonable and sensible, but along the lines indicated he 
was altogether illogical and unreasonable. He believed in 
the potency of the horse chestnut or buckeye as a sovereign 
remedy against rheumatism and invariably carried one in 
his left trousers' pocket. Irish potatoes he regarded as 
equally efficacious for some other ill that flesh is heir to, 
and he carried one in his right trousers' pocket. When 
these talismen became shriveled and dried from age or 
contact with the heat of the human body they were 
replaced by new specimens. And when the full moon first 
showed herself in the heavens he always propitiated her 
good graces by exhibiting to the shining orb a bright silver 
quarter exhibited over the left shoulder. This, in his 
opinion, was a harbinger of good luck. Of course, there 
is a modicum of superstition in all of us, but it was most 
ridicuously developed and emphasized in the individual 
referred to. 

Then we had a free and easy gentleman who emphasized 
the fact that he was a secret order man by wearing on the 


lapel of his coat a badge about two inches long and of 
nearly the same width. This insignia was further set off 
by a large ring on his left little finger with the device of 
another order, while just below the sign manual of large 
dimensions above referred to was a smaller token of still 
another secret society. 

His cuff buttons had the insignia of yet another order, 
and on his card, which he most amiably presented as a 
means of introduction, was a roster containing a list of 
forty-two secret organizations to which he belonged. This 
amiable character rarely approached a stranger without 
first scanning his person to see if he could discover an 
emblem of any kind. If he recognized the charm or 
badge a conversation something like this would ensue: 

" You're a Mason ? So am I." "Yes, I am a Mason." 
"I thought so. Where are you from?" "New York. I 
suppose you have been there." "Oh, my, yes indeed. 
Why, I know New York like a book — have been there 
several times. Do you belong to any other society besides 
the Masons?" "No." 

"Oh, my, I belong to forty-two — am treasurer of four- 
teen, high-muck-a-muck of seven, grand sachem of one, 
past grand high-cock-a-lorum of eight and traveling dele- 
gate for five." 

"How do you find time to attend so many ?" "Oh, my ! 
I just run in, give the signs and spend a few minutes in 
each when they meet — kinder make the grand rounds, as 
it were. Do you know Mr. Blank, of ISTew York?" "I 
have met him once or twice." 

"Oh, my, I have known him all my life and am well 
acquainted with him." "Is that so?" "Oh, yes. Have 
you made many acquaintances on the ship yet?" "Only 
a few at the table, and my next stateroom." 

"Oh, my ; in a day or two I will know everybody on the 


boat. I travel for the accommodation of others and make 
acquaintances to be of service, you know." "Indeed?" 

"Yes ; as soon as I find out a man belongs to the same 
order as I do, I feel like a brother to him, and go right up 
and slap him on the back. I believe in making myself 
agreeable to every one." "That is very nice in you." 

"Well, I see right now a gentleman with a badge on; 
I will go over and shake hands with him. I am glad 
to have met you; so long." And off he goes. 

The next gentleman he accosts offers no visible sign of 
being a secret order man, so the following queries and 

"You are not a member of any secret order, are you ?" 
"RTo, I don't believe in them." "Oh, my; I belong to 
forty-two — am treasurer of fourteen, high muck-a-muck 
of seven, grand sachem of one, past grand high cock-a- 
lorum of eight and traveling delegate of {^6.^ 

"It must cost you a considerable sum to keep up your 
dues?" "Well, you see I'm treasurer of fourteen and 
traveling delegate for fi,ve. Where are you from?" 

"England is all right. America and England can 

whip the world. I was in England some years ago 

was much impressed with her. She's all right!" 

"England and America should be friends." : 'Yes, 
indeed. Is this your first trip ?" "No, I have been to the 
Orient several times." 

"This is my second trip. I was in London in 1000 
and was impressed with London, but did not like Pans. 
You are not a Mason, are you? Oh, I beg pardon, I 
asked that before — well, so long. I am glad to see you ; 
will be delighted to continue our acquaintance." 

But our busybody does not permit his acquaintance to 
end with the gentlemen. Seeing a lady and little girl on 
deck, he approaches them with these words : 


"Is this your little girl V- "No, sir," comes the reply ; 
"I am not married." 

"She is so much like you — a dear, charming little lady — 
I thought she was your daughter. Where are you from ?" 

"Oh, my ! I have been there twice — fine country. I 
was very much impressed. California is all right." 
"Yes, we have a fine country." 

"Is your husband .a Mason? Oh, I beg pardon, you 
told me you were not married ! Is your father a Mason ?" 

"Yes ; where do you live ?" "I am from Masonville, 
the finest place in the world." "Where did you say you 
were from ? California." 

"Oh, my ; I asked you that before. Do you know any- 
body from Masonville ?" "ISTo, but I have heard my father 
speak of a Mr. Smith of that town. Do you know him V 

"Do I know him ? I should say I did. I have known 
him over a week ; am well acquainted with him. He is a 
gentleman of character and integrity." "How long did 
you say you had known him ?" "Oh, my ! I have known 
him over a week." 

"Do you like to make acquaintances ?" "Sometimes." 
"Well, you see I travel for the convenience and accom- 
modation of others ; I like to know everybody. Won't you 
accept my card V 9 "Thank you." 

"Well, I am glad to have met you; you're all right, 
California is all right, and I am all right." And off he 

The Young Voyager insisted on taking the trip not only 
for his health and pleasure, but in order to take care of 
pater familias and Perley, who came to grief on their first 
foreign tonr by losing some money through robbery. 
ISTow, the funny part about it all is that The Young 
Voyager lost his letter of credit at Grenada, and did not 


recover it until he got to Cairo. Then also on two 
different occasions he left his pocket-book under his pillow 
at hotels. Next he lost his gloves and subsequently his 
umbrella, while morning, noon and night he lost his heart 
to every pretty woman he saw. I can see him now as 
he sweetly smiles at the girls of Andelusia, the women of 
Madeira, the maids of Athens and the dusky damsels of 
Egypt. To tell the truth, he had an eye or eyes for them 
all. And this young man was the self-constituted guardian 
and protector of father and Perley ! 

We all grew much attached to our good ship Arabic. 
She was our city of refuge, our haven of quiet and rest 
after many a weary trip on land, and we invariably 
climbed her sides with feelings of relief that seemed like 
homecoming. And not only did we learn t& love the ship, 
for many of us were drawn to one another by the strong 
cords of real affection. After our party had broken up 
at Naples I returned to the old smoking-room before 
debarking at Nice and there I could but exclaim — 

"I feel like one 
Who treads alone 
Some banquet hall deserted, 
Whose lights are fled, 
Whose garlands dead 
And all but he departed!" 

Take it all in all we had a very quiet passage to Madeira, 
our first stopping place. But two or three times the ship 
rocked considerably and the wind was quite high. On 
these occasions we had quite a number of absentees from 
the dining-rooms. Many of the ladies would appear, and 
then, as the motion increased, they would disappear, like 
the Arab who folds his tent and silently steals away. 
These sufferers had no fancy for "swell" dinners or swell 
seas; they did not stand upon the order of their going, 



making no excuse and offering no apology, but their pallor 
told the tale more sadly, more forcibly and more eloquently 
than words. 

For amusement we had euchre parties and we heard 
interesting lectures on the lands we were about to visit 
by several clergymen and professors. On Sundays we had 
services by different ministers, with music and song. A 
lady from "Bosting" usually led the improvised choir and 
her singing was very fine. 

One of the jolliest persons on board — he once in a while 
honored the smoking-room with his persence — was a gen- 
tleman then in his eighty-sixth year. We dubbed him 
"the Patriarch of Jerusalem." He was the oldest person 
on the ship, but lively and active, and his conversation 
was exceedingly interesting. 

The invincible and irrepressible Perley, with his usual 
propensity to discover badges and charms indicating secret 
orders — gracious ! I shouldn't have called his name — on 
one occasion espied a pair of cuff buttons on a member of 
the "Sunday School Class" and at once asked if he were a 
Mason. The gentleman replied, "I am," and exhibited 
his cuff buttons in evidence as an outward sign. 

Perley, being an expert, examined them and said, "This 
is not a Masonic emblem." "Yes it is," replied the gentle- 
man ; "don't you observe the square and compass and the 
letter <G' ?" 

"But," replied Perley, who, as I have said, belongs 
to nearly every order under the sun, "don't you see 
'Jr. O. U. A. M.,' which stands for a different organiza- 
tion ?" 

"Yes," says the gentleman, "but what does the 'G' stand 

"Why," replied Perley, " 'Gimlet,' of course." 

The gentleman was an Englishman by birth, and, there- 


fore, could not belong to the Junior Order of United 
American Mechanics. He took the buttons out of his 
cuffs, and with an air of disgust declared he would throw 
them overboard. But Perley said he would like to have 
them, so they passed into his possession. 

The Rev. David G. Wylie related to me the following 
amusing incident : There was a clergyman on board from 
Oklahoma who had never been on an ocean steamship 
before. The first night out he awakened and heard the 
noise of running water. It was only a leaking pipe, but 
he thought it more serious, and called to his companions 
in the stateroom: "Get up boys, quick, the old ship is 
going down." We got a good deal of fun out of this 
incident, as the timorous parson was a serious sort of 
fellow and made much of little things. 

February 12th, being the anniversary of the birth of 
Abraham Lincoln, the day was observed by a lecture or 
eulogy by a reverend gentleman from the State of Michi- 
gan, who lauded Mr. Lincoln to the skies. In fact, he 
went so far as to compare his death to the martyrdom and 
sacrifice of our Lord. I have always felt kindly towards 
Mr. Lincoln and concede to him many attributes of great- 
ness and kind heartedness, but there are certain compari- 
sons that sound sacrilegious and greatly out of place. 
This was one of them. 

It is Pope, I think, who says "the proper study of man- 
kind is man," but I very much doubt if the knowledge 
acquired in this process has a tendency to promote one's 
happiness or is calculated to increase one's admiration for 
humanity, unless he looks upon the subject with the eyes 
of a philosopher and makes due allowance for the frailties, 
frivolities and follies of human nature. There are to be 
met with on a cruise such as ours many curious types, who 
strikingly illustrate the idiosyncracies, peculiarities and 
singularities of the genus homo. 


Many bear their characters written on their features. 
These are generally the simple, kindly, lovable kind — as 
easy to read as the face of a clock. Then we have the 
masked face, as impenetrable as the veiled features of the 
Prophet of Khorasan; the dough-faced, with their bound- 
less stupidity, and the lively, nervous, cheerful counte- 
nance indicative of good nature and hopefulness as 

optimistic in its nature as the dough-faced is pessimistic. 
Perhaps worst of all, we have the snob, who apes gentility, 
has acquired wealth by inheritance or in a questionable 
way, and imagines he is better than any of his fellow 
creatures — the newly rich, the contemptible rich. 

The evil effects resulting from the acquisition of sudden 
wealth are, I regret to say, more conspicuously shown by 
women than by men. We had, for instance, a widowed 
lady on board who came r regularly to the table with her 
fingers so laden with diamonds that she could scarcely 
manipulate her knife and fork. The discomforts she had 
to undergo to gratify her vanity must have been extreme. 
At any rate, the glittering gewgaws on her person were 
quite enough to excite the cupidity of those inclined to a 
breach of the tenth commandment. 

Then, too, we had a type of the imaginary, or would-be 
rich, who at the table would remark to her companion, "I 
wonder if I put my diamonds in my trunk, I am so afraid 
they may be stolen." If this apprehensive person owned 
a diamond no one ever knew it. All she said was for 

Among the ladies were two old maids from the Bay 
State. We presumed they were candidates for matrimony. 
One of them smiled sweetly and frequently at the Judge 
and gave unmistakable hints that his company was agree- 
able 1 , but the Judge was not easily taken in the net of the 


And yet a man on matrimony bent could between the 
two spinsters have had an antipodal choice. In Mother 
Goose melodies there is a rhyme that runs — 

Jack Spratt could eat no fat, 

His wife could eat no lean, 
And so between the two 

They licked the platter clean." 

]STow, apropos of this, one of these ladies was over five 
feet high and weighed about two hundred, while she had 
dark eyes and a florid complexion. The other was about 
four feet in height and tipped the scales at about seventy- 
five pounds. She had blue eyes, a fair face and sorrel- 
top hair — or Cleopatra auburn, I suppose I should call it. 
So you see the Judge had two opposites to choose from, 
and yet the insatiate man was not satisfied. 

We had a consequential lady, too. On a certain occa- 
sion she approached one of the "class," who wore a cap 
very much like that ornamenting the captain of the ship, 
which gave the landlubber a nautical appearance. This 
individual she mistook for the captain, and as such 
addressed him. The landlubber, feeling flattered at being 
taken for the captain, at first did not undeceive her. Said 
the fair one: "Captain, I wish you to understand I am a 
lady, accustomed to all the comforts and luxuries of life. 
I have not had proper consideration shown me. I demand 
proper respect and attention, sir." Our classmate, then 
scenting danger, tried to convince her he was not the cap- 
tain, but all in vain. She left him very indignant. 

One of our lady passengers was known as the "Hum- 
mingbird," not that she was a 'hummer,' as used in the 
slang sense, nor because her attire was as brilliant as the 
plumage of the bird that bears this name, but because of 
a peculiar habit. The appellation was conferred on the 


fair one because when the spirit moved her she emitted 
a humming sound, and the spirit, be it said, always 
inspired her when the band struck up. As soon as the 
music started, she would hum a bar or two in a gentle 
monotone — a kind of gurgling, rippling, purling sound, 
in accents sweet and low, as though she saw, in her mind's 
eye, "some sunny hope, some day dream bright" of memo- 
ries long ago, touched into life as gently as an iEolian 
harp breathed upon by kindly zephyrs. 

This humming or music of the throat was generally 
accompanied by time beating with the hands in a rapturous 
state of exaltation — eyes cast heavenward in such ecstatic 
delight that one would have fancied their owner entranced, 
enthralled or captivated by the seraphic melody of her 
own music. 

No amount of insistanee could induce this lady to burst 
forth into full song. Her declination was a head shake, 
but of that character that left the impression, "I could if 
I would." A gentle warbling, a slight motion of the 
throat was all. 

JSTo matter what the tune played by the band, her hum 
was always the same — like Poe's Raven, she sang only one 
melody "as if her soul in that one sound she did outpour." 
We became so accustomed to this sound that whenever the 
band played and we did not hear the usual refrain, some 
one was sure to ask, "Where's the 'Hummingbird V " 

On the ship were several wealthy widows and a number 
of spinsters, who, I am told, were decidedly averse to 
celibacy. One widow made it generally known that the 
man who married her need never do another day's work. 
Notwithstanding the great inducements of this offer, it 
had not been taken when I left the ship. But Cupid did 
get in some work, for there were one or two marriages 
during the trip, and several couples entered into "engage- 



It is said — I know not with what degree of malice — 
that many women take these trips alone on husband hunt- 
ing bent. Having exhausted themselves in vain on the 
home market, they try new fields and pastures green. I 
hope I am not writing ungallantly, but only truthfully, 
when I state this. 

One of the most pleasant of all our ladies, a widow of 
means, was my right-hand companion in the dining-room. 
She was intelligent and thoroughly agreeable in every 

We also had a tired lady, who sat down if the crowd 
halted for a second, and on some occasions, we are satisfied, 
she was more fatigued by her constant sittings and quick 
risings than she would have been had she remained 

And there was still another lady, who, when on shore, 
invariably took a position at one shoulder of the guide. 
ISTo matter how quick any one else was, she "got there all 
the same." She could ask more questions than any person 
I ever met. For this reason she was kni/wii as the "Inter- 
rogation Point." With note book and pencil in hand 
she asked a multiplicity of questions, designed not so much 
to gain information for herself as to show how little the 
rest of us knew. She even asked what material the row of 
wooden buildings on the Bosphorus was made of, and 
received the prompt answer "Of wood, madam." Her 
persistent queries in regard to some Athenian statuary 
at the Stadium actually brought a blush to the Grecian 
guide, to say nothing of the embarrassment it occasioned 
among the passengers. 

One woman in our company invariably made it a rule 
to be the last of the party. She took her own time and 
would not be hurried. When the guide had gotten through 
with his explanations she would cry out in a loud, harsh 


voice, "Now hold on, guide; stop right here. I have not 
heard all you said." Then she would insist on his repeat- 
ing his tale over again. Finally she became such a 
nuisance that the guide declined to pay any attention to 
her, and, to the satisfaction and relief of all, she dropped 
out of our party. 

The self-conceited lady, who "knew it all," or at least 
thought she did, was likewise in our company. She, as 
well as a few of her satellites, regarded herself as a walk- 
ing encyclopedia — the apotheosis of history, particularly 
of her own country — when, as a matter of fact, she knew 
very little about it. On one occasion, when she was 
expatiating upon the eloquence of Patrick Henry's famous 
"Give-me-Liberty-or-Give-me-Death speech," she said it 
was made in Philadelphia. "I beg your pardon, madam," 
said I, "the speech you refer to was made in old St. John's 
church, Richmond, Va." I doubt to this day whether she 
believed my statement. 

On another occasion she remarked in my presence — she 
was a Western lady — that she had to be very cautious in 
talking about Southern people, their customs, and the 
"rebellion," as persons from that section were very sensi- 
tive. But for her part, said this dame, she thought the 
war had settled the whole matter and convinced every one 
that the South was in the wrong. As I inferred that this 
remark was made for my benefit, I told her in a gentle- 
manly way that knock-down arguments were never con- 
vincing; that we of the South had accepted the results 
of the war, were loyal to the government and reverenced 
the flag; but we had no apologies to make or excuses to 
offer for our course. Indeed, I added, that we were now 
more strongly convinced than ever that our fight for con- 
stitutional liberty was the proper thing. This silenced 
her, and ever afterwards she treated me with pleasant con- 


sideration. The fact that I had the courage of my con- 
victions inspired her with respect. 

It took several days on shipboard before we could get 
our bearings. On one occasion I started to my stateroom 
and got lost. I walked down the companion way — the 
route I usually walked — but could not find my room. I 
came out on deck, looked around, and went down again 
with the same result. I then tried the other end of the 
ship, but finally had to go to one of the stewards and get 
him to conduct me to my room. The fact was, the door, 
which previously had been open, was closed and shut off 
my compartment. Perley and The Young Voyager had 
a good laugh at my expense, when I told them of my 

We had on the Arabic sixty-seven Masons hailing from 

twenty-eight different States. An association was formed 

by them for the purpose of visiting foreign lodges and 

Solomon's quarries near Jerusalem. I had the honor to 

be elected president of this organization, which bore the 


"Masonic Association 

Clarke's Oriental Cruise 
on S. S. Arabic." 

Brother John D. Jordon, of Savannah, Ga., was elected 
secretary, and Brother J. Vincent Perley, of Charlottes- 
ville, Va., treasurer. The latter and Brothers J. Q. 
McAtee, of Philadelphia, Pa., and S. D. Bartle, of 
Mechanicsville, Iowa, constituted a committee to get up 
a proper souvenir, with pictures of Jerusalem, which duty 
they faithfully discharged. We cherish this souvenir as 
a delightful memento of our trip. 

As president of the association it was encumbent upon 
me to examine and vouch for the brethren. I found 


among the members three past masters besides myself. 
Holding, as I did, a certificate from the Grand Master 
of Virginia, I was accepted as being all right. I examined 
the other three and we formed a committee to examine 
the rest, whom we found to be the rustiest lot we ever 
encountered. Some did not know a sign, word or grip of 
the order ; we had to take them upon faith and other slight 
indications. But what will seem strange to the Craft in 
America is the fact that when we visited an English lodge 
at Constantinople and a Greek lodge at Cairo, they admit- 
ted me without any examination and accepted my avouch- 
ment for the entire party. 

As a matter of curiosity I submit the contents of the 
ship's larder for our party on the cruise described. It 
follows : 

Beef ' 88,000 pounds 

Poultry 28,000 

Potatoes 144,000 

Coffee 7,500 

Butter 32,000 

Flour 95,000 

Eggs 60,000 dozen 

Sugar 25 000 pounds 

Tea 750 

Milk 10,000 gallons 

Coal 5,800 tons 

Fresh fish, oysters, vegetables and fruits are not included 
in the above. While this statement may seem startling, 
it is entirely correct. The fare on the ship was fairly 
good, except the pigeon pie, which was so tough that we 
suspected the birds of having been some that old Noah had 
in his ark. Possibly they were relatives of the dove that 
was released to find the olive leaf which indicated that 
the waters were subsiding. The geese also were pretty 
tough, and may have been of Roman origin. Doubtless 


they were of the breed that made themselves famous when 
the Eternal City would have been captured but for anse- 
rine vigilance. 


We Sight Madeira's Coast — Urchins Dive for Money — Beautiful 
Mountain Scenery — The City of Funchal — Primitive Methods 
of Locomotion — In a Land of Persistent Beggars — A "Witty 
Little Girl Floors the Party's Historian — In the Footprints 
of Columbus — Ignorance of the People — Agriculture and Hor- 
ticulture — Fair Cadiz and Her People — Where Murillo Perished 
— Chilly Days in a Southern Clime — Salt Pyramids and Much- 
Abused Donkeys — A Ride to Venerable Seville— Last Resting 
Place of America's Discoverer — Intense Farming — Absence of 
Song Birds — Memories of the Moors — The Cork Industry — 
Gibraltar and Its Monkeys — Heterogeneous Population of the 

On the morning of February 16th — our eighth day 
out — upon going on deqk, we perceived on the distant 
horizon a dark and heavy cloud; but on our nearer 
approach there loomed up a massive rock, rising from the 
very depths of old ocean's bed and projecting boldly into 
the circumambient waters. 

At a distance it looked like a rugged, barren waste, but 
closer inspection proved it to be the beautiful Island of 
Madeira, which has been described as "the verdant moun- 
tain isle, towering in a glistening haze like some realm of 
enchantment." Our ship, on approaching still nearer, 
was surrounded by native boats laden with willow chairs, 
baskets and a variety of fruits, or filled with diving boys, 
stripped to the waist, who amused the passengers on deck 
by leaping from their little craft as soon as a coin was cast 
into the water. 

Previous to the invasion of this island by the American 
tourist a penny was sufficient inducement to make the 
divers go overboard, but now it requires the shimmer of 
silver or the glint of gold to persuade them to leap into the 
chilling waters of the ocean. Little fellows not more than 


ten or twelve years old are experts in these diving feats 
and they rarely fail to get the money before it goes out of 
sight. As soon as they grasp the coin in their hands they 
clap it into their mouths, climb back into the boat and sit 
there shivering with cold until another piece of money is 
thrown, when over they go again. Some full-grown men 
were also in the boats but most of the passengers preferred 
patronizing the boys. 

There is a tradition that the ancients regarded this 
shadowy mass of rocks in the west as the "mouth of hell" 
and avoided it accordingly, hence it was uninhabited for 
many years after the other lands adjacent had been 
occupied. The Madeiras, it is certain, were known to the 
Romans. Pliny refers to them as "the purple islands." 
The main island was settled by Portugal in 1418, and 
still remains under that government. Madeira has very 
truthfully been described as a "neglected paradise/ for 
its climatic conditions, its rich soil, and balmy breezes 
render it capable of being converted into a second Garden 
of Eden. 

In fauna, fruits, flowers and cane it is unsurpassed. 
Plants and vegetation flourish in Oriental luxurance and 

We sailed along the coast of the island for a distance 
of about twenty-five miles, and never witnessed a more 
lovely panorama than its gradually unfolding beauties. 
The distant hills seemed dotted with sheep, but upon our 
getting nearer the white objects proved to be houses 
perched upon the cliffs or sleeping in the valleys and 
hollows of the mountains. Lofty peaks towered upwards 
in the background — magnificent precipices overlooking the 
sea and in some instances two thousand feet high. The 
tallest peak on the island is over six thousand feet in 
height. The brilliant verdure on every rock and hillside 
gives Madeira a most inviting appearance. 


Funchal, the chief city, was our landing place. It has 
a population of about 50,000, but strange to say, besides 
the consul there are only two American residents in the 
town. We were met at the landing by bullock sleds (or 
"caros," as they are called by the natives) which carry 
four persons, and go at a speed of about three miles an 
hour. The teamster moves on foot and prods his patient 
oxen with a sharp stick, while his assistant occasionally 
places a cloth, saturated with oil, under the runners in 
order to make them run smoothly. This renders the rocks 
so sleek that walking is not only difficult, but in some 
places dangerous. After the teamster handles the cloth, 
as above indicated, he uses the bullock's tail as a towel. 

A ride in this unique vehicle is both pleasant and 
picturesque, and I venture to say that a drive down the 
principal streets of an American city in a "caro" would 
create quite a sensation. A "caro" assuredly would stand 
no show beside an automobile. 

Another medium of locomotion is the "rede," or ham- 
mock, a sort of palanquin carried by two men on their 
shoulders. Very few horses or carriages are seen, for the 
ascents and declivities are so acute it is dangerous to use 
them. How the natives manage when a fire breaks out 
is a problem I cannot solve. 

A ride on the inclined railway to the top of the moun- 
tain to the Church of Our Lady opens a beautiful view of 
the ocean, which lies before you like a sheet of molten 
silver shimmering in the sunshine, and dotted with many 
sails. As you ascend you pass orange and lemon groves, 
sugar cane and banana plantations, vineyards and ripening 
figs, peach and almond trees in full bloom, gardens laden 
with lovely and fragrant flowers, roses in rich and luxu- 
riant profusion, honeysuckles perfuming the air, helio- 
tropes, fuchsias and geraniums — and all this in mid- 


The climate varies here only about 12 degrees the year 
around, registering between 60 and 70. Madeira is a 
winter resort patronized largely by the English. The 
road up the mountain continues to wind through a most 
picturesque landscape of variegated scenery, past deep 
gorges, yawning precipices, gaping ravines, terraced moun- 
tain sides and cultivated slopes. There is scarcely enough 
soil on the rocks to sustain the vegetable growth, but all 
is bathed in balmy sunshine. Here on one of these lofty 
peaks or in lonely mountain glens, "far from the madding 
crowd's ignoble strife" one could find "silence coeval with 
eternity" — that repose and rest from trouble and care 
that might be sought in vain elsewhere. 

We descended the mountain, a distance of two miles, 
on a toboggan, and made the trip in about ten minutes — a 
thrilling experience. It is easy going down, but when 
one sees the poor, sweating devils toiling up again with 
their tobaggans on their backs, panting for breath and 
with their faces livid from heat, one is reminded of those 
famous lines from Virgil which begin "Facilis descensus 
Arerno" and end with the words, "Sed revocare gradum, 
superas evadere ad auras, hoc opus, hie labor est." 

Notwithstanding its beauty and fertility Madeira is a 
land of beggars. The native children can speak but little 
English, yet their shibboleth is "give me a penny." This 
sentence is plainly and naturally spoken — "merely this 
and nothing more." I fancy it is taught the children by 
their mothers in place of the "Now I lay me down to 
sleep" taught by American mothers. They are a most 
insistent and persistent set — worse than flies and more 
annoving than fleas. 

After the children attain some bigness they add to their 
appeal, "You vera rich, we vera poor; give me a penny 
please." They bothered us so much that even "The Young 


Voyager," who is a mild-tempered youth, actually shook 
his fist at them, while Perley, the best natured of men, 
threatened to draw his "gun." Finally, I suggested for 
our own protection that we turn the tables, take the 
initiative and give the youngsters a dose of their own 
medicine ; so every time we met an urchin we held out 
our hands and said, "Give me a penny, give me a penny." 
This novel proceeding so nonplussed them they began to 
shun us. Some of the children seemed to enjoy the joke 
and went off laughing. 

But begging, let me say, was not entirely confined to 
the children. When we came out of any public building 
there stood lined up before us, in appealing array, quite 
a concourse of vagrants — men and women, the halt, lame 
and blind. Many of them so appealed to our sympathy 
it was not long before our pockets were depleted of small 

At the doors of the shops we noticed certain small 
statues, something like the wooden Indians that once 
ornamented our cigar stores, and held in their hands a 
bunch of cigars. These statues represented their subjects 
with an empty hand extended and in the attitude of 
begging. We supposed these were designed to perfect the 
children in the art of mendicancy or to remind them to 
keep it up. At any rate, the effigies apparently worked 
like a charm on the pestiferous youngsters. 

The children at Madeira, however, are exceedingly 
bright and many of them are comely and pretty. 

One day we were walking along a beautiful road wind- 
ing around the mountain, followed as usual by a gang of 
child-beggars asking for pennies. I stopped to make an 
entry in onr note book, whereupon a little girl stepped up 
and remarked, "Me read English." Our note book was 
handed to her and she was requested to read what I had 


written. She looked askant at it and smilingly replied, 
"You no write good English." Those acquainted with 
my chirography will immediately recognize the truthful- 
ness of the remark. We at once gave her two pennies for 
her most truthful witticism. 

Through the center of the town runs an immense ravine, 
which is a public lavatory and laundry, upon whose rugged 
sides, held down by small stones, the washed linen of the 
inhabitants appears. Each resident is thus enabled to 
make a complete inventory of his friend's garments and 
to see the number of holes in his neighbor's stockings and 
other habiliments. 

This chasm divides the city, but it is spanned by several 
bridges, which afford easy access to each side. 

All articles, such as food, furniture and fuel, owing to, 
the steep declivities, are conveyed on sleds or toboggans. 
Sugar cane and wood are also moved in the same way. 
There is now very little timber on the island, but the 
public laundry referred to above, is embellished by a long 
row of gigantic sycamores, probably hundreds of years old. 

We know of no more pleasant winter resort than 
Madeira. We tried a bottle of the native wine and found 
it fine. About fifty years ago the wine from this island 
was quite extensively used, but in 1852 a disease almost 
destroyed the vines. Other wines were substituted, and 
although vine culture has somewhat recovered, the wine, 
so famous years ago, has not regained its former prestige. 

The name Madeira signifies wood, and the island was 
so named on account of the luxuriant forests which covered 
the place when it was first settled. The woods subse- 
quently were destroyed by fire, it taking but seven years 
to obliterate the growth of centuries. This was the primi- 
tive method of preparing the land for cultivation. 

Columbus, the great discoverer, is identified with the 


early history of Madeira. He followed his sweetheart 
to this island, rediscovered her and married her here in 
1473. His father-in-law was a seafaring man, it is said, 
and Columbus got his taste for the sea from this connec- 
tion. There is a tablet on a house bearing his name and 
built on the site of the structure in which he lived. It 
will be remembered that Napoleon was brought to Madeira 
in 1815, before being exiled to St. Helena. 

The people of this island are very ignorant. Dr. Lorenz 
states that in 1881 the son of a wealthy merchant wished 
to know if our civil war was over. Another fairly intel- 
ligent person expressed regret at just hearing the news 
of the death of the popular President, George Washington. 
A large number of slaves at one time were held in bondage 
in Madeira, but about tvfo hundred years ago they were 
freed. Their descendants have intermarried with the 
natives, which accounts for the dark complexion of the 

There are a few public schools, but the children do not 
attend regularly or in large numbers. The land is culti- 
vated by irrigation and so sparse is the soil on the moun- 
tain sides that earth is carried there on the backs of 
donkeys. We even saw earth being carried by the children 
in baskets poised on their heads. Women also carry stones 
in the same way. Wheelbarrows seem to be unknown to 
the inhabitants. The wages are about 25 cents a day, and 
the laboring classes are, of course, very poor, but indus- 
trious. The women make beautiful embroideries and the 
men fine basketwork, which they sell. The houses outside 
the cities are mere hovels, with neither floors nor windows, 
and though the island is small, there are many who have 
never been out, of sight of their homes. Though these 
people possess but little they are strongly attached to their 
little plot of Mother Earh. 


Madeira is an island of flowers. Geraniums grow to 
a height of twenty feet in a few months. There are 363 
genera of native wild flowers and 717 species. Some of 
the houses are fairly hidden under brilliant blossoms. 
Palms five feet across the stump are the growth of fifteen 
years. This is the home of the so-called English walnut, 
which is carried to England and from thence exported. 
We were regaled at the hotels (in February) with straw- 
berries, lettuce, new potatoes, snaps and other fresh vege- 

A short horse-car line leads to the inclined railway. 
We were struck with the original, if not primitive, method 
of punching the car tickets. (They don't know about 
Mark Twain.) The ticket is a thin piece of paper, which 
the conductor folds across the middle — "folds with care in 
presence of passenjare." He then tears out a part of the 
fold, thus saving the trouble of using the ordinary punch. 

The boundaries of each person's little garden or tract of 
land are separated by stone fences. We took a tour of the 
town in a bullock sled — oh ! such a ride. We never before 
had one we enjoyed more. Not only did we drive through 
the business and fashionable sections of the city, but 
through the old streets and closes, so narrow in some 
places, and with walls so high on each side that the sun 
rarely shone in them. One could sit in this novel vehicle 
and touch the walls on each side. The charge is only 25 
cents an hour and the enjoyment great. 

We witnessed a funeral procession while in Madeira. 
The corpse was borne on a frame on the shoulders of four 
men and was followed by twelve little boys with lighted 
candles. A priest brought up the rear. 

We left Madeira deeply impressed with its beauty, its 
delightful climate and its salubrious atmosphere. 

Our next stopping place was "fair Cadiz, rising o'er the 


dark blue sea." This was once a magnificent city of over 
200,000 inhabitants. Before the decadence of Spain set 
in it exceeded even London in wealth. The present popu- 
lation, however, is only about 70,000. Once the largest 
town in Spain it is now the eleventh. Still it is a charm- 
ing city. 

As you approach Cadiz the town gives you the impres- 
sion of a magic city rising out of the sea. It is surrounded 
with massive stone walls from thirty to fifty feet high and 
about twenty feet in width. The streets are narrow, but 
clean, and are lined with bright colored houses, most of 
them ornamented with balconies. There is a great 
abundance of marble both without and within. 

The dark-skinned senoritas have large, liquid, black 
eyes, raven tresses, shapely,feet and delicate hands. Many 
of them are exceedingly beautiful, and on them "The 
Young Voyager" beamed his most enticing smiles. 

The Alemeda, or public garden, is the fashionable resort 
of the town. The city is a very ancient one, having been 
founded by the Phoenicians, who regarded it as the limit 
of the world — the ultima tliule of the globe. 

But it was captured by the Romans, whose handiwork 
and landmarks were left in almost every European 
country, their eagles having been borne before their solid 
phalanxes over the whole of the Old World. Caesar gave 
Cadiz the name "Augusta Urbs. Juvenal speaks of it as 
"the City of Venus," on account of its pretty women and 
fine wines. 

In the Church of Los Capuchinos are some celebrated 
paintings, chiefly by Murillo, who met his tragic end in 
this building, falling from a scaffold in the midst of his 
work, and expiring soon after. 

We also visited the art gallery, which contains many 
fine pictures, chiefly drawn from Bible history. 


We were not annoyed by beggars in Spain. The Dons, 
as a rule, are too proud to beg, and when it was attempted 
the police at once took charge of the mendicants. The 
houses generally have no chimneys. Fuel is so scarce in 
Spain that the inhabitants cannot afford fires; and the 
weather for the greater part of the year does not require it. 
When the people have fires they use charcoal in brasiers. 

The bull ring of the town is capable of holding 11,000 
spectators, but there was "nothing doing" in that line 
while we were there, so we did not witness the national 

My friend, the Rev. John D. Jordon, gives in one of 
his letters the following experience: "My guide and 
driver could speak no English. With a few Latin words 
and signs, I made him understand pretty well. On hearing 
him say 'parkie' I understood him to mean park. I cried 
'bono parkie' and he at once drove into a beautiful park or 
botanic garden. They have a famous tree there called 
the 'dragon tree.' I called out 'dragoona," pointed to a 
tree and he drove us to the very spot. It was amusing to 
see and hear the various Americans trying to make them- 
selves understood. People with all kinds of things to sell 
accosted us. I put them to flight by yelling at them 
'no bono' which I meant for them to interpret as mo good.' 
It worked like a charm, and soon others were freeing 
themselves from undesirable solicitors by quoting my 
magic words." 

En route to Seville, which is ninety miles from Cadiz, 
we passed many salt pyramids. Seeing these, we at first 
thought the Dons were attempting to copy after the ancient 
Egyptians, but on inquiry we were informed that these 
mounds were salt cones, the source from which Spain 
draws her salt for preserving her olives and for domestic 


The water from the ocean is let into ponds or reservoirs, 
and as, in the summer the weather is very hot and dry, 
it soon evaporates and leaves a deposit of salt, which is 
heaped up until the mound is fifteen or twenty feet high. 
Then it is given a conical shape and covered with a com- 
position of sand to keep it from being damaged by the 

We lunched on the train on squab and toast and hard 
boiled eggs, which we washed down with a bottle of wine. 
Along the railroad we observed extensive hedges of cacti, 
but occasionally we noticed that this ancient method of 
enclosure was being supplanted by American barbed-wire. 

At the railroad stations the flagging is done by women 
instead of men. The poor, oppressed donkeys which one 
sees in Seville excite the compassion of all beholders. 
These unhappy brutes are monuments of patience and 
endurance. The donkey is the chief medium of transpor- 
tation. He is hitched to a cart large enough to carry a 
dozen of the tiny creatures, and yet he does not cry out 
or protest, as did Balaam's long-eared beast, though he 
doubtless has greater reason to complain. We saw boards 
sixteen feet long strapped to their backs and also panniers 
containing wood, coal and all kinds of goods, wares and 

En route we noticed that the olive trees are cut back 
or pruned so closely as to leave the trunk, though probably 
a hundred years old, but a gnarled stump, covered only 
with the foliage and branches of one or two years' growth. 
In fact, all trees are trimmed frequently in order to pro- 
cure timber, which is converted into charcoal or sold as 
fagots for cooking purposes. Cadiz has no chimneys; 
Seville has chimneys, but no fires. 

The Spanish people think Seville an earthly paradise, 
and there is a saying among them "God gives His favorites 
a house in Seville." 


The ride from Cadiz to Seville is less than a hundred 
miles, and yet it took us, by special train, five hours to 
make the journey. They are a slow people, these 
Spaniards. We go through a beautiful, fertile country. 
The principal crops are wheat, beans and barley. Herds 
of cattle and flocks of sheep and goats dot the landscape. 
Thousands of acres are planted in olives and oranges, 
which form lovely groves. 

Here, as elsewhere, are found evidences of Roman 
occupation — the remains of the characteristic aqueduct 
can be traced for miles. The ancient Roman believed in 
a bountiful supply of pure water, and the Rome of to-day 
is noted for it as of old. 

We were not shaved by the famous "Barber of Seville," 
immortalized by Rossini, but were shorn by the guides and 

At Seville we visited the cathedral, considered by many 
the finest in Christendom. In area is exceeded only by 
St. Peter's at Rome. The architecture is a massive 
Gothic, but the interior is so cold and cheerless that one's 
religion, I imagine, would ooze out like Bob Acres' 
courage. No man could possibly be made enthusiastic or 
ardent while worshiping under such circumstances. The 
edifice is without heating apparatus of any sort. Yet it 
contains many splendid paintings and works of art. Its 
stained glass windows are magnificent, while its rich silver 
and wood carvings are invaluable and unsurpassed. If 
one could visit this superb structure in warm weather and 
pure sunlight he could not fail to be profoundly impressed. 
Some of the magnificent windows are Hve hundred years 
old and the most beautiful in existence. 

The town contains nearly five hundred streets and lanes, 
and they are so narrow and tortuous (many of them) that 
one easily gets lost. Seville, like Cadiz, was founded by 


the Phoenicians, but was conquered by the Romans. Later 
it became the stronghold of the Moors, from whom it was 
taken by the Spanish. Its hotel accommodations are 
poor, and it offers no hope of the fulfillment of the Scrip- 
tural text "The last shall be first and the first last," for 
the reason that dinner is served in courses, and the "next 
course" is not brought until each individual has gotten 
through with the previous course. Thus it will be seen 
that there is no advantage to be gained by the fast eater. 

We visited the King's palace, or as it is called, the 
Aleazer. The gardens belonging to the palace are very 
elaborate and beautful. 

One of the curiosities of Seville is the counterpart or 
duplication of the house^ of Pontius Pilate. It was built 
several hundred years ago by some wealthy Don, who went 
to Jerusalem and there had the plans drawn. The 
measurements were taken from the original some fifty 
years before it was destroyed. This is the only duplicate 
or f ac simile of the kind in existence. The building shows 
the Judgment Hall in which Christ was tried, the pillar 
to which He was bound before being scourged and the 
room in which Peter stood when he denied his Lord. 

In the cathedral at Seville is the sarcophagus containing 
the ashes of the great discoverer, Columbus. It is a 
curious circumstance or coincidence that this wanderer 
should continue to travel even after death. He was first 
buried in San Domingo. When this island passed into 
the hands of the French the remains of Columbus were 
carried to Cuba. When the Americans drove the Span- 
iards from Cuba the ashes were removed to Seville. We 
trust they have made their last journey and may now be 
permitted to remain in Seville until the resurrection morn. 
The reason of their removal is carved in bold letters on 
the foundation on which stands the bronze allegorical 


figures. The legend alludes to "ungrateful America," 
doubtless referring to the historical fact that Spain was 
our friend in the dark days of the Revolution. 

Trains travel very slowly in Spain. The conductor 
locks the doors of the compartments, presumably to prevent 
the passengers from jumping off to gather fruit as they 
go along. A cow catcher would be more serviceable in the 
rear than in the front of the locomotive. Wood is so 
scarce in Spain that the disused and rejected ties are used 
for fences. 

The land between Seville and Granada is rich and well 
cultivated. Vast fields of wheat and barley and thousands 
of acres of olive, cork and almond trees are to be seen. I 
have never beheld more intense farming. ~No weeds are 
seen and every foot of arable ground is made to yield, but 
the absence of farm houses and barns strikes one as 
peculiar. The farmers, after the old feudal system, live 
in villages just as they did when the custom was for the 
lord of the manor to gather his retainers and vassals 
around him for common protection and defense. The 
great scarcity of timber prevents the building of barns, 
and granaries are established, like warehouses, in the 
towns. Many persons even rent a portion of their dwell- 
ings for this purpose until the grain is marketed. 

On our trip to Granada we had in our compartment 
two priests, iive other gentlemen and four ladies. The 
manager of the tour served each person a bottle of Spanish 
wine with the luncheon. 

After the imbibition of this wine it was curious to note 
its effects. One gentleman called attention to the sup- 
position on his part that the train was going backward; 
another — an Irishman — maintained that it was still 
going forward. One of the priests was of the opinion 
that it was going around, while the other contended it was 


"going every way." Two of the gentlemen went to sleep 
and the ladies talked so fast and furiously it was impas- 
sible to gather their opinions on the matter. Verily we 
had a regular picnic. 

While on this journey we passed many quaint old walled 
towns and cities, dating back to the times of the Romans 
and Moors. These have their ancient watch towers, 
perched like sentinels upon the nearest hill tops. 

As we get nearer Granada the country becomes moun- 
tainous ; first the land is rolling, then appear the foothills, 
soon to be succeeded in the distance by lofty, towering 
peaks and next snow-capped ridges unfold themselves in 
panoramic view, extending along the horizon as far as the 
eye can reach. The mountains being denuded of timber, 
are barren and unattractive. 

We found it disagreeably cold at Granada, our heavy 
overcoats being necessary for comfort. The hotels were 
not heated, and one night we went to bed quite early in 
order to keep warm. The only way to get a fire is to order 
a charcoal brasier. These are had on special application 
and at extra charge. A lady of our party remarked at 
the hotel table that she had seen the magnificent buildings 
and lovely scenery of Spain, but had looked upon nothing 
so pleasant and cheering as the steam emanating from a 
friendly looking musical tea kettle. 

We saw the Spanish mail express, an old-fashioned, 
"ante-bellum" stage-coach, looking very much like the one 
in Buffalo Bill's show, and so high that a ladder had to 
1)0 used to enable the driver to get his bags on top. 

At night we took a ride over the city on the poorly 
patronized street cars. The conductors are very accom- 
modating, stopping occasionally to let the passengers get 
a drink or buy cigarettes. Spaniards smoke all the time 
and allow the passengers the same privilege. The ladies 


of Spain do not object to tobacco and many of them use 

The Dons of Granada look very picturesque in their long 
cloaks lined with green, red or purple velvet and having 
a cape attachment. They wear the cloak with peculiar 
grace. It is thrown over the left shoulder and envelopes 
the lower part of the face. The men also wear slouch 
hats and almost invariably when on the street they are 
seen smoking. , 

We put up at the Hotel Victoria, and on the morning 
after our arrival were aroused quite early by the noises 
and cries incident to the awakening of a large city. On 
looking out from our balcony we could see droves of goats 
and cows being driven by their keepers down the public 
streets and pausing in front of the doors of their patrons. 
The animals are milked "on the spot" and the lacteal 
fluid drawn warm and fresh from the fountains of life. 

We were induced to believe we would find genial, 
balmy weather in Andelusia and would hear the nightin- 
gales caroling by moonlight amidst the ruins of the 
Alhambra. We were inclined, too, to think — before 
experience taught us the contrary — that Spain was a soft 
southern region, like sunny Italy, but it struck us as being 
a cold, melancholv countrv. 

This impression was intensified by the absence of trees 
and increased by the lack of song birds, which are so 
numerous in England and America. The absence of 
woods and hedges, of course, makes the country inhos- 
pitable to the feathered songsters. 

The way to the Alhambra is up a deep, narrow road, 
and the hills on each side are covered with beautiful trees, 
which in February are just beginning to sprout their 
leaves. Along the road on both sides is a lovely stream 
of limpid water, glistening and sparking in the sunlight, 


while above us are the Alhambra and the Vermillion 
towers. It is supposed the latter were built by the 
Romans, but their origin is unknown. 

The Alhambra itself is an ancient fortress and castle of 
the Moorish kings of Granada — the place where they made 
their last stand for liberty against Spanish invasion. It 
was erected upon a spur of the Sierra Nevada or Snowy 
Mountain and has been so frequently described that any 
words from me would be superflous. I refer all interested 
in this magnificent view to Washington Irving. 

The cisterns and reservoirs cut in the living rock go to 
prove that the Moors valued a good supply of pure water. 
In front of the Esplanade is the splendid pile commenced 
by Charles V., but never completed, and intended, it is 
said, to eclipse the original of the Moslem kings. 

The Moorish palace is the most magnificent of its kind 
in existence. One indeed feels when he visits it that he 
is treading the places depicted in the Arabian Nights 
stories. The arcades of elegant filigree work, the splendor 
of the architecture, the delicate fluted columns and the 
graceful tracerv of fretwork on the walls and in the dome 
suggest the touch of a magician's wand or the agency of 
something superhuman. The honey-combed stalactite 
vaulting in the Room of the Two Sisters, the largest of all 
Arab ceilings, has no less Mian 5,000 pieces in its con- 
struction. Each differs from all the others, and yet all 
blend together in wonderful order and symmetry. In the 
center stands the famous fountain with its alabaster basin 
just as it did in the days of the unfortunate Boabdil. 

We also visited the Court of Lions and the Hall of the 
Abencerrages, who were treacherously murdered here. 
The lovely filigree work, the unique ornamentations and 
the beautiful decorations reminded us of the descriptions 
of Fairyland. We have been told that they are unsur- 


passed, and that frequent attempts have been made, with- 
out success, to imitate them. It is said that the peculiar 
art they represent perished with the overthrow of the 
Moors. As we surveyed these splendid remains of a once 
powerful fortress and grand palace and looked out over 
the surrounding country, we did not wonder that Boabdil, 
the last of the Moorish kings, shed tears when he took a 
last view of his domains. The reproach of his stout- 
hearted mother — "You do well to weep as a woman over 
what you could not defend as a man" — must have added 
inexpressibly to his grief. 

"For brightly fall the morning rays 
Upon a conquer'd king; 
The breeze that with his banner plays, 
Plays with an abject thing. 
Banner and king no more will know 

Their rightful place 'mid friend and foe; 
Proud clarion, cease thy blast! 

Or, changing to the wail of woe, 
Breathe dirges for the past." 

The site once occupied by the Moorish aristocracy is 
now the dwelling place of gypsies, who have burrowed into 
the sides of the hill like ancient cliff dwellers. Such are 
the atmospheric conditions that I thought it only a few 
hours' journey to the snow-capped mountains before us, 
but was told it would take three days to reach them. 

The cathedral at Granada is, externally, rough and 
uninviting, but inside it is strikingly beautiful. The 
columns are of massive Corinthian marble, decorated in 
white and gold. The remains of Ferdinand and Isabella 
repose beneath a splendid monument in this edifice. 

The people of Granada are suppled with pure, fresh 
water from the mountains. It is brought in daily in tin 
cans and skins on the back of the genial factotum, the 
donkey. Faggots are brought from the hills in the same 


manner for fire wood. We saw car loads of faggots that 
we would burn as useless brush. 

Perley, in his peregrinations, always carries a thousand 
or two of his visiting cards. This card is as unique as its 
owner is peculiar. To be appreciated, it has to be seen. 
On the front side is his picture, astride a donkey or 
camel — I do not now recall which. On the back is a 
partial list of the secret orders to which he belongs — in all 
fifty-one — and he is still a joiner or re joiner. 

This card is scattered from the St. Lawrence to the Rio 
Grande in America, and from Venice and Paris on the 
Continent; also throughout England, Scotland, Holland 
and Belgium — in fact, wherever he has been. 

At Granada, with his usual courtesy, he presented one 
of the natives with his picture, but the recipient mistook 
it for the portrait of sonfe distinguished American travel- 
ing incognito.- The Spaniard exhibited it with great 
enthusiasm as the picture of the man in whose honor the 
trip was gotten up, and did his best to sell it to his fellow- 

We left the Alhambra and Granada with feelings of 
regret and took the train of the Bobadilla and Algeciras 
Railroad for Algiers, en route to Gibraltar, a distance of 
about two hundred miles — the grade one in fifty and for 
a short distance one in seventy. 

At one of the stations at which we stopped a bright 
wood fire was burning and it was soon surrounded by an 
appreciative crowd, as its genial Avarmth was much 

About one hundred and ten miles of the B. and A. is 
owned by an English company, and is in excellent con- 
dition. The general manager, who is a fine fellow, put 
at the disposal of Mr. Clark his private observation car, 
and Mr. Clark in turn was kind enough to invite our party 
of three to take scats in it. 


At Aronda we saw another old Roman aqueduct. We 
passed large groves of cork trees, as Spain is the largest 
producer of cork in the world. The bark that constitutes 
the cork of commerce is cut into sections ; one-half is taken 
from the trees every five years. The trees look somewhat 
like our oaks. When their trunks and some portions of 
their limbs are denuded of their natural covering they 
present a spectral appearance and lose much of their 

The cars in this country are lighted from the top ; one 
of the trainmen climbs to the roof of the coaches for that 
purpose. Ralroad ties cost one dollar each in Spain. In 
less than fifteen miles we passed through fourteen tunnels 
one-half a mile long and so straight you could see through 
them from one end to the other. The road cost $150,000 
a mile. 

The scenery in this section is grand ; magnificent gorges, 
immense precipices, beautiful valleys and lofty mountains, 
tiny rills and lovely cascades of sparkling waters — the 
whole well timbered and watered. 

A most delightful feature of this journey was the con- 
stant attendance for miles of a perfect rainbow thai: seem- 
ingly followed the train, encircling the cars with a halo 
of colors brilliant and pleasing. 

"Far up the blue sky a fair rainbow unroll'd 
Its soft-tinted pinions of purple and gold." 

The general manager of the road informed us that the 
Spanish government taxed the road twenty per cent, of 
the receipts from passenger fares and five per cent, on all 

The next point m our itinerary was Gibraltar, which 
rises up from the sea in grand and massive form, like a 
mighty lion in stone, crouching to spring upon an invading 


host. These are historic waters; between this point and 
Cadiz kelson made his last signal to his fleet — "England 
expects every man to do his duty" — and sailed to meet 
his foe. The result was one of the greatest naval battles 
ever fought, but England paid dearly for it in the death 
of the brave and intrepid Nelson. 

Opposite Gibraltar, on the African side, is Apes Hill, 
quite a high mountain, from which at certain seasons of 
the year the monkeys go over to Gibraltar, but how they 
get there is a mystery. Some suppose there is a cave 
extending from the rock to Apes Hill under the Strait 
and that the simians go through this pass. 

On our arrival in the Straits on February 22nd, we 
found several American warshps decorated in honor of 
Washing-ton's birthday. Cheers were given and returned. 

The famous Rock of Gibraltar has been owned by many 
nations. It was first in the hands of the Phoenicians and 
then the Romans. Afterwards it passed into the possession 
of the Goths and Vandals, who were succeeded by the 
Moors. Next it w r as owned by Spain, and now the flag of 
England flies over the place. It has been truly described 
as "unique in position, in picturesqueness and in history/* 
The rock fairly bristles with cannon, and should any 
nation punch the sleeping lion or pull his whiskers they 
would roar with a mighty detonation. The town is built 
upon the slopes of the rocks and the Titanic boulders are 
honey-combed with tunnels and galleries for port holes. 

We climbed for about a mile through one of these 
immense galleries and enjoyed the first perspiration we 
had experienced since we left America. It was indeed 
tedious, uphill work and many fell by the wayside, but 
our party of three, believing in the sentiment, "old Vir- 
ginia never tires/* kept up and went to the end. 

The streets are very irregular and are just as they were 


when the place was a Moorish possession. It is said the 
Moors built them crooked, so that at any hour of the day 
shade might be found on one side or the other. The shrub- 
bery, vines and flowers are quite luxuriant and attractive. 
This is one of England's strongholds and is her key to the 
Mediterranean. She has spent many millions in its 
defences and has just completed at a cost of $20,000,000 
a new harbor which can receive the largest ships. 

The population of the town is about 25,000. One sees 
all nations in its streets — Arabs, Africans, Spaniards, 
Turks, Jews and the sad-faced Moors, who look as if they 
never smiled. Martial law prevails here. ~No foreigner 
can reside on the island without his consul or householder 
becoming responsible for him. There is a large sprink- 
ling of Red Coats Tommy Adkins is always in 

evidence. A strip of neutral ground lies between the 
fortifications and the Spanish guns at Linea. 

A magnificent view can be obtained from the rock. 
You can see the waters of the Mediterranean and the 
Atlantic Ocean, in addition to the Bay and the Straits of 
Gibraltar. The continents of Europe and Africa are also 


Algers and Her Former Slaves — In the Arab Quarter and Among 
its Fakirs — Malta and Her Romantic History — Valetta and its 
Sculptured Guardian — The Church of St. John — In the Chapel 
of Bones — Grecian Isles and the Temple of Athena — Policemen 
Attired Like Ballet Girls — The Acropolis and the Parthenon — 
Acres of Ruins — Mars Hill and its Associations — Constanti- 
nople, the "Dogopolis" of the World — Mosque at Sancta Sophia 
and Other Points of Interest — Sights in the Grand Bazaar — 
Turkish Ladies — American Missionary Schools — "Smyrna, the 
Lovely" — Along the Route to Ephesus — Tobacco "Octopus" 
Agent Corners Licorice Market — Glimpses of Troy, Rhodes 
and Cyprus — Carmel, the Dwelling Flace of David's Nabal — 
In the Land of the Prophets. 


Algiers is "a city set upon a hill, whose light cannot 
be hid." As one enters the harbor one's attention is called 
to the moles and breakwaters built many years ago by 
Christian slaves held in bondage when Algiers was domi- 
nated by pirates. 

These buccaneers captured certain American citizens 
and demanded a big ransom for their release. In reply. 
Uncle Sam, in 1815, sent Commodore Decatur to demand 
the immediate release of all Americans held in slavery. 

The crafty Dey acceded to the demand, but asked that 
in order that he might not lose prestige among other 
nations, the United States would, as tribute, make him a 
nominal annual gift of some powder. The sturdy Com- 
modore grimly declared that "if the Dey took the powder 
he must take the balls, too," so the unwilling Dey, fully 
understanding the implied suggestion, yielded up his 
prisoners. It is said that 30,000 of these Christian slaves 
were employed in this work for many years. 


From the bay the view of the city is very beautiful, 
with its terraces of dazzling white and its background of 
emerald green, blending with the purple sea and azure 

We drove over the entire city in hacks. The terraced 
gardens and parks were planted with palms, orange, lemon 
and pepper trees — all in full foliage. 

The Arab quarter, exemplifying, as it does, the extreme 
primitiveness of live hundred years ago, was unique and 
presented a curious picture with its strangely costumed 
people and its narrow streets and alleys. We saw the 
inhabitants buying, eating and sleeping in full view of the 
public; we smelt strange and unsavory odors; we heard 
the intonations of prayers, yet saw gambling going on 
almost under the very noses of the religious zealots. 

Whilst the ancient piratical government has been suc- 
ceeded by French rule, the descendants of the former Cor- 
sairs are strongly in evidence to-day among the sellers of 
curios and antiques, all warranted genvine, but doubtless 
made in Germany or Paris. I saw articles which were 
priced at $2 but sold for 25 cents. The streets were filled 
with many people in curious costumes and almost all 
known tongues could be heard. 

The bazaars, which are the most wonderful in the world, 
are filled with all kinds of goods — brilliant and dazzling 
wares — but no one is expected to pay the prices first asked. 
If you do the seller gets his neighbor to kick him as soon 
as you leave because he did not ask more. 

The contrast between the inhabitants of Algiers and 
Madeira is quite pleasant. We saw no beggars at the 
first-mentioned place, but many villanons-looking Arabs 
and Turks. 

The bay was filled with flags of many nations. Among 
other vessels we noticed two Russian warships that had 


escaped Togo and had been in these waters ever since. 
The ships are coaled by natives, who carry the fuel in 
baskets on their shoulders. 

This must be a great wine-producing country, as the 
wharves, when we saw them, were full of immense casks 
of this liquid. 

Perley drifted off here in his usual aimless way from 
my son, Harry, and myself, and when he got back to the 
ship had many wonderful yarns to tell. He must have 
gotten hold of some of his favorite Parisian a cafe au lait," 
as he mistook a long section of fire hose for a sea serpent 
and started to jump overboard, but "The Young Voyager 5 ' 
and I managed to control him. He brought on board a 
fat, stuffed lizard, which he intended as a companion for 
the alligators he had purchased the year before in Florida. 
Perhaps he wished to crossbreed the saurians. 

Malta is another British stronghold in the Mediter- 
ranean chain of defenses which Great Britain regards 
as essential to guard her interests in this great sea. The 
Maltese call the island, in their poetic language, 

"The flower of the world," 

probably because they do not know other flowers. It is 
closely identified with Biblical history, romance and war, 
and has been controlled by Phoenicians, Romans and Van- 
dals and later occupied by Germans, Spanish, French and 

One of the little group was called Hyperia by Homer. 
It was the supposed residence of Calypso, the nymph, 
whose siren songs brought grief to Ulysses when that 
unfortunate hero was on his way from Troy. 

Malta, in. the year 1530, was granted to the Knights of 
St. John, better known as the Knights of Malta, by 
Charles V. The renown which the order acquired on the 



fields of Palestine is well established by history. Origi- 
nally the members were keepers of a hospital for pilgrims 
at Jerusalem. They eventually became a military order, 
and under the banner of the White Cross showed their 
valor during the crusades on many a hotly-contested field. 
After being driven from Palestine with the Christian 
armies that engaged in the crusades, they settled on the 
Island of Cyprus, whence they were expelled by the Turks. 
Then they went to the Island of Rhodes and thence to 

Under the leadership of La Valetta, the most famous 
of the Grand Masters of their order, the Knights founded 
the city of Valetta and began a series of fortifications that 
have been without a parallel. 

The Knights also became masters of the sea, and by 
maintaining constant piratical expeditions, turned the 
tables on the Turks. But alas ! this grand order, founded 
on vows of temperance and chastity, with the growth of 
wealth and power lost its virtue and its moral and religious 
standards, while its members degenerated into adventurers 
and libertines. 

The Island of Malta, independent of its several smaller 
groups, is only seventeen miles long and eight miles broad, 
but it is the most densely populated place on earth. The 
island is nothing more than a huge rock covered with 
scanty soil. On account of the frequency of hurricanes 
there are but few trees. The climate is so mild, however, 
that two or three crops are produced every year. While 
the highest point of the island is less than a thousand feet, 
the shores are very steep, giving rise to Byron's "Farewell 
to. Malta" — 

'Adieu, ye cursed streets of Stairs, 
How surely he who mounts you swears." 


Valetta, at which we landed, owing to its towers and 
fortifications, presents quite a formidable appearance. 
As one enters the harbor one sees sculptured in the living 
rock a mounted knight, who guards the entrance and stands 
as a symbol of the ancient order, which so long held the 
island. In fact, the "Knights" are very much in evidence. 
The museum contains many relics and antiques pertaining 
to them. There are parchments bearing the orders and 
signatures of many of the Grand Masters, some, not being 
able to sign their names, affixed their marks to these docu- 

The Church of St. John is remarkable for its historic 
associations, and its rich internal decorations, monuments, 
tapestries, pictures and relics. The facade is surmounted 
by an octagon cross, the symbol of the Knights. Below 
is a bronze figure of Our Lord. Over the entrance are 
the coats of arms of the Grand Master, La Cassiere, during 
whose rule the church was built. The pavement contains 
about four hundred sepulchral slabs, made of marbles of 
many colors and placed there in memory of the Grand 
Masters and Knights. These memorials are richly 
adorned with coats of arms and heraldic emblazonments. 

The altar of the church is carved with gold and silver. 
The railing in front of the altar is made entirely of virgin 
silver and would have been appropriated by Napoleon 
when he captured the island in 1800, had not the priests 
painted it black. It is said that the tapestries in this 
church cost over $30,000, while there are many rare and 
costly paintings. 

The chapel of San Carlo contains many^ reputed relics, 
among others a thorn from the Saviour's crown, the stones 
with which Stephen was beaten to death and bones of some 
of the apostles. The alleged right hand of John the 
Baptist, encased in a glove of gold and with a large 


diamond on the finger, was here when Napoleon took the 
island. History or tradition says he slipped the ring on 
his own finger, but thrust the hand aside with the sneering 
remark, "Keep the carrion." 

In the Church of the Monks lie the unburied remains 
of the monks, whose skeletons still wear the cloaks used in 
life — a ghastly array that smells like a charnel house. In 
the chapel of Bones are arrayed in symmetrical order, tier 
upon tier, the skulls of over two thousand Knights. Their 
thigh bones are also laid out in regular order, like billets 
of wood, while the arm and smaller bones are fixed to form 
curious designs. The display is nothing if not strange 
and gruesome. 

The Maltese women go enveloped in a curious hooded 
garment, called a "faldette" — a kind of sunbonnet shaped 
like a coal scuttle. This is attached to their black cloaks. 
Over the faldette is a veil, which the women close or open 
as fancy or curiosity dictates, but the only features usually 
discernable are their large, liquid black eyes, in which 
slumber the passions of their Oriental natures. The fair 
ones marry at twelve and age very rapidly. 

"The Young Voyager" sprouted a mustache on this 
trip, and a lass from 'New York generously supplied cold 
cream to nourish and cherish it. Another lady suggested 
that he ought to have waited until he got to Belgium before 
letting it grow, as he could then have called it "Brussels 
sprouts." This was the first "hirsute effort" he had ever 
made, and he was very proud of it. 

We happened to be in Malta during the carnival. The 
streets were filled wth people. It looked as if all the 
inhabitants of the island had turned out, so great was the 
crowd. Scores of masqueraders appeared in grotesque 
costumes, and there was a perfect saturnalia of fun and 
frolic, battles of candy, flowers, paper and confetti. We 


were bombarded on all sides. Paper streamers were 
thrown from the streets over the heads of people in car- 
riages, and those in the vehicles retaliated by pelting others 
on the side walks with bouquets and confections. The 
boys, beating drums and blowing horns, reminded us of 
our Christmas; every one was jolly, full of merriment 
and laughter. It was a noisy, but good-natured and well- 
behaved crowd, and we enjoyed their frivolities immensely. 

The Cathedral Church of St. Paul is built upon the 
supposed site of the house in which the great Apostle is 
said to have preached when on this island. It contains 
what is believed by many to be a perfect picture of the 
old saint. St. Paul's Bay is identified as the place "where 
two seas met," and a statue of the Apostle stands there. 

It is related in Acts that "When Paul had gathered a 
bundle of sticks and laid them on the fire, there came a 
viper out of the heat and fastened on his hand." This 
would lead to the inference that in those days there were 
serpents at Malta, but none can be found there now. A 
popular tradition says that Paul put a curse upon them 
and they all died. 

At the point at which St. Paul is supposed to have 
landed is built St. Paul's Tower and nearby stands a 
chapel, with paintings representing the shipwreck of that 
inspired man. 

The island is dominated by priests, there being two 
thousand, or one to every twenty families, and yet the 
people are very ignorant, as only one-tenth of them are 
able to read and write. 

We drove to the Garden of St. Sebastian, a lovely 
place, where we bought and ate most luscious oranges fresh 
from the trees. 

And now again we take ship and plough our way 
through the waters of the Mediterranean. We before had 


no conception it was such an extensive body of water ; its 
appearance on the map and its stated length and width 
afford no idea of its size. The Mediterranean has to be 
seen and traversed in order for one to realize its vast 

For two days after leaving Malta we continue our 
course until we find ourselves in the blue waters of the 
^Egean Sea, catching an occasional glimpse of some Greek 
island, with its sloping sides, or some green valley dotted 
with the white houses of a fishing village. As we draw 
nearer, we discern the ruins of the Temple of Athena, 
which for so many centuries has crowned the rocky pro- 
montory of the Acropolis. These are — 

"The Isles of Greece, the Isles of Greece! 
Where burning Sappho loved and sung, 
Where grew the arts of war and peace, 
Where Delos rose and Phcebus sprung!" 

Now we are in the Saronic Gulf and soon we see the 
shores of Salamis on one side, while on the other the eye 
distinctly beholds the Acropolis. Ahead of us before we 
turn to enter the harbor is the Strait of Salamis, and 
beyond are the Bay of Eleusis and the "City of the 
Mysteries." In the little bay on the left, nearly 500 
years B. C, the Greek fleet under Themistocles and 
Eurybiades, gained a great victory over the Persian 
armada. We enter Phalerum Bay, land and proceed four 
miles in carriages and — 

"Athens, the eye of Greece, mother of arts 
And of eloquence 

lies before us. The mountain to the east is Hymettus, 
called the Mountain of the Bees, on account of the large 
quantity of honey produced there by these busy little 


insects. We are now on classic ground, which appeals 
profoundly to every one at all imbued with love and admi- 
ration for the ancient in art, literature and sculpture. 
Nor do we forget that the germ of democracy planted by 
the Athenians, and watered with their blood, has been 
a potent force in the freedom of the human race. This 
is indeed the — 

''Clime of the unforgotten brave! 
Whose land from plain to mountain cave 
Was Freedom's home or Glory's grave!" 

Not far distant lies Marathon, where 10,000 Athenians 
defeated Darius with his 100,000 Persians. No occasion 
in the world's history was fraught with more far-reaching 
consequences than the day on which this great battle was 
fought and won. The barbarians of the East were driven 
back, and the civilization of the Western world was saved. 

Before landing we are transferred from our ship to 
tugs, and from tugs to small boats. The country, as out- 
lined from the steamer, is barren of timber and uninviting 
in appearance ; but after the traveler touches the soil this 
impression is soon dispelled by the verdant green of the 
hills, for is not this the place — 

"Where the virgins are as soft as the roses they twine 
And all, save the spirit of man, is divine?" 

The singular costumes of the country, the curious 
signs — all in Greek letters — over the stores and the incom- 
prehensible jargon produce strange impressions and 
remind one of the confusion of tongues at the Tower of 
Babel. The police appear dressed like ballet girls, with 
a blue petticoat coming down to their knees, white tights 
and shoes that turn up at the toes and have a fringe at 
the end. Each "cop" wears a red fez and a belt with a 


holster containing an ancient and cumbersome-looking 
pistol, while a cheese-knife sword dangles about his knees. 
They are unique — these Grecian policemen — but not very 
formidable in appearance. 

The carts used in transporting goods are singular-look- 
ing contrivances, and it must have taken a good deal of 
time, thought and ingenuity to have contrived anything 
so uncomfortable and inconvenient both for man and beast. 

The population is cosmopolitan in character, all nations 
being represented, with even a sprinkling of the ubiquitous 

A short distance from our landing stands the Theseum, 
the best preserved edifice in ancient Greece. A good deal 
of the frieze over the pilasters and columns is well-nigh 
gone, yet the massive solidity of its construction, the golden 
yellow of the weather-beaten Pentelic marble and the grace 
of the Doric columns are very impressive. 

But the chief glory of Athens is the Acropolis and the 
Parthenon, rising over the city like a crown of glory, from 
the summits of which a magnificent view of the city and 
the bay is obtained. The Acropolis is a precipitous rock 
which towers 260 feet above the city and extends about 
1,000 feet east and west and 400 in its greatest width. 
It was the site of the earliest Athens known to history 
and was a strong fortification. For a long period the 
palace of the King stood on it. 

Among the other monuments of the Acropolis are the 
Temple of Athena and the Temple of Wingless Victory. 
The slopes of the Acropolis once were occupied by the 
Dionystic Theatre and other buildings. The Parthenon 
was a cathedral and afterwards a mosque, while the 
Proplyaea was a government building. It was nearly 
destroyed by an explosion of gunpowder induced by light- 
ning. The Parthenon also was partially ruined by gun- 
powder during the Venetian siege. 


On the north side of the Acropolis is the beautiful 
Erechtheum, with its famous porch of the Maidens — the 
Caryatids — and remarkable for its complex and architec- 
tural variety, as well as for its technical perfection. It 
originally included a shrine to Athena Polias (as guardian 
to the city), altars to several other deities and the tomb of 
Erechtheus (whence its name). 

The rich entabulature of the famous Porch of Caryatids 
rests — or formerly rested — on the heads of six female 
figures, ranking among the world's finest works of art. 
One of these figures, as were other marbles, was taken to 
England by Lord Elgin. The missing statue is now 
represented by one in terra cotta. In architecture the 
Erechtheum was Ionic. 

The climb to the Acrppolis is no easy task, and many 
of our party give out, while some have to rest and take 
it in easy stages. We go up the sloping west side of the 
rock, mounting great steps, such as have doubtless existed 
for thousands of years. To the left once stood the colossal 
statue of Athena Promaehus, wrought by Phidias and 
composed of the spoils of the Persians captured at Mara- 
thon. It was sixty-six feet in height and the figure was 
clad in full armor. Her lance-head served as a landmark 
to approaching mariners. This statue has long since dis- 

As we stand on the plateau we are in the midst of mag- 
nificent ruins — marble columns, fallen pillars, elegant 
frieze work, entabulatures of graceful columns, archi- 
traves, fractured pilasters, crumbling cornices and beauti- 
ful ornamentations — yea, acres of ruins, grand and 
glorious even in their overthrow. What must the place 
have been in its pristine grandeur and glory! It must 
have taken centuries of time and millions of money to 
rear these splendid structures. And a superb genius such 


as modern art has not evolved, must have conceived, 
planned and erected the buildings. Think of it — this 
hill was a fortified stronghold 1,000 years before the birth 
of Christ. 

We next turn to the right and visit the little Temple of 
Athena Nike, the "Wingless Victory," a most perfect and 
fascinating Ionic structure, which was restored some 
seventy years. 

Opposite us across the road by which we came, is the 
lower hill of the Areopagus, separated by a considerable 
depression of ground. The rock is rugged and bare; but 
a few steps are cut in the stone to assist in the ascent. 
Upon this hill sat the famous court of the same name, 
which exercised a general censorship over the affairs of 
the city and had jurisdiction in cases of life and death. 

From the slope of the Areopagus, or Hill of Mars, St. 
Paul is said to have delivered his address (Acts XVII). 
As we stood upon the spot where it is supposed the great 
apostle stood when he spoke to the Athenians about "tho 
unknown God," the significance of the place and its 
environments profoundly impressed me. I fancied Paul 
with his eyes resting on the Acropolis itself and with the 
Parthenon in full view — that Parthenon in which the 
religion of the Greeks was taught. Near by was the 
Temple of Olympian Zeus and close at hand was the 
Theseum erected to Vulcan, or the God of Fire. And 
doubtless on his way to Mars Hill the Apostle saw on the 
roadside the altar to the unknown God. 

A, little to the left we see the Hill of the Pnyx, a great 
artificial area about 400 by 200 feet, on whose slopes is 
the large terrace which formed the forum or place of 
assembly of the Athenians, as well as the rock "bema," 
from which the orators addressed them. 

From this forum Demosthenes uttered his famous 


"Philippics/' and his great orations. Here, too, doubtless 
the virtuous Socrates, in vain, pleaded for his life. From 
this rock the people were aroused by the demagogue to 
deeds of infamy and injustice, as well as to acts of exalted 
patriotism, and true bravery. 

Within sight of the Pnyx we behold on the slopes of 
the Museum Hill the doors that lead into the chambers 
cut in the living rock, in which Socrates was imprisoned, 
and where he drank, with the stoicism of the philosopher 
and the resignation of a believer in the true God, the 
fatal hemlock. 

My friend, Dr. John D. Jordon, in one of his letters 
kindly placed at my disposal, says : 

"Just beyond the Temple of 'Theseus is the cemetery 
in which many of the ancients are buried. Twenty-five 
hundred years some of them have slept here. The ancient 
tombs are very peculiar. On one monument I saw a 
huge bull, on another a lion, on another a bear, and on 
another a hound, standing guard over the grave. On 
some of the tombs may be seen husband and wife, standing 
with hands clasped in lingering farewell. There is no 
looking up looking up or pointing heavenward, as is so 
often seen in American cemeteries. Alas, for all their 
art, learning and oratory when the Greeks had such poor 

The ancient Stadium, where the Olympic games were 
played, was entirely destroyed by modern vandalism, but 
through the noble generosity of a Greek gentleman of 
wealth living at Alexandria, it has recently been restored, 
and is now one of the most magnificent structures of its 
kind in existence. It was laid out in a natural hollow 
between two hills, the complete length of the course being 
670 feet. The restoration of the Stadium cost half a 
million dollars. Tt is semi-amphitbeatrical in shape, tier 


above tier of solid white marble seats, with steps at regular 
intervals for egress and ingress. The seating capacity is 
over 50,000. We also visit the Art Museum, which con- 
tains the most valuable collection of art treasures in the 
way of statues, marbles and paintings in all Greece. 

Our first night in Athens is lovely, for the weather is 
warm and pleasant and the stars shine brightly, while 

"Towering above 
In her lightest noon, 
The emerald moon 
Blushes with love." 

Byron, in one of his poetical rhapsodies, says of Greece : 

"Know ye the land where the cypress and myrtle, 
Are emblems of deeds that are done in their clime; 
Where the rage of the vulture, the love of the turtle, 
Now melt into sorrow, now madden to crime?" 

The same poet also pays a glowing tribute to the Grecian 
beauties in his famous "Maid of Athens." I have looked 
in vain for her counterpart, but without success. In 
sooth, I am tempted to think that while swayed by the 
Muse, Byron used that license peculiar to his tribe, or 
that the lovely maid was a figment of his fancy — a 
creature of his fervid imagination. 

Byron — if I may quote him still another time — also 
wrote that the Greece of his day was 

"Greece, but living Greece no more." 

And whilst it is true she has at present no Sappho, 
Anacreon or Pindar in poetry ; no warriors such as 
Leonidas, Themistocles, Aristides and Cimon; no such 
lawmakers as Lycurgus, Draco and Solon; no philosophers 
of the Anaxagorian or Socratian order ; no statesman like 
Pericles and Demosthenes, and no Phidias in art, she 


can still point to Marathon, Therrnoplylae, Salamis and 
Plataea for inspiration, embalming as they do a most 
glorious past. We can but believe that there still burns 
in the hearts of her people a fire of liberty, that may yet 
be kindled into a flame that will arouse them from their 
humiliation and make their altars blaze again with their 
wonted fires of freedom. 

Modern Athens is forging to the front, In 1870 it had 
a population of 45,000. To-day it has a population of 
150,000. The city has an electric road, fine public build- 
ings and good hotels. There are also many manufactories 
in the city. I suspect that these are chiefly occupied in 
the making of antiques for American and other tourists. 

The bread for sale on the streets here is patterned 
after the ancient discus and is carried around strung on 
sticks. We noticed shoemakers and blacksmiths plying 
their vocations on the public thoroughfares and without 
shelter in the way of a house. 

We visited the King's Palace. The throne is a gorgeous 
affair and the ball-room, with its splendid chandeliers, 
paintings and antiques, is very beautiful ; at night when 
lighted up it presents a most magnificent appearance. 
One of the ladies of our party, we regret to say, attempted 
to seat herself upon the throne of His Majesty, George, 
but she was quickly told by the guide that this was not 
permitted. There are always those in every party who, 
like "fools, rush in where angels fear to tread." 

In Athens we witnessed another funeral. The decedent 
was a woman, whose body, exposed in a coifin lying on a 
litter^ was followed by two mourners. 

Perley, on this trip, developed a mania for postal cards 
that seemed insatiable. He bought them at every place 
he stopped, after having previously acquired nearly all 
the ship's barber possessed. He counted them twenty times 


a day and then recounted them at night. When not 
rattling or sleeping he could always be found going over 
his cards. He should have conferred on him the title, 
"Count Perley." 

Leaving Athens we steamed through the Dardanelles, 
or Hellespont, and through the Sea of Marmora, into the 
Bosphorus and anchored opposite the Golden Horn and 

"The Thirteenth Century Chronicle" describes Con- 
stantinople as being "The eye of the world, the ornament 
of nations, the fairest sight on earth." Well, externally 
this is true. From a distance its graceful minarets, mag- 
nificent domes, beautiful white palaces and quaint build- 
ings are very attractive ; but closer inspection proves that 
it is like unto "whited sepulchres, which, indeed, appear 
beautiful outward, but are within full of dead men's bones 
and of all uncle anliness." 

On the shores of the Hellespont was situated the tower 
in which dwelt Hero. Here she nightly displayed from 
the casement as a beacon "her bright and ruddy torch" by 
which Leander steered his course — 

"For that was love's own sign and beacon guide 
Across the Hellespont's wide weary space, 

Wherein he nightly struggled with the tide; 
Look, what a red it forges on her face, 

As if she blushed at holding such a light, 
Even in the presence of the night." 

Byron says Leander went "To woo, and, Lord knows 
what besides." In one of these expeditions he lost his 
life. Byron, for "glory," performed the same feat. 

The shores along the Bosphorus are very beautiful — a 
panorama of palaces, mosques and private dwellings, inter- 
spersed with verdant pastures and gently sloping hillsides 
clothed with flowers or shrubbery. 


Many of the hills fairly bristle with artillery, and are 
crowned with heavy fortifications, this being the strong- 
hold of His Majesty, the Sultan. The widest point is 
about two miles and the narrowest eight hundred yards, 
so it is, of course, easily defended. 

Constantinople has a population of 1,125,000, not 
including the dogs. It is the Dogopolis of the world. I 
would designate it as the city of the three D's, signifying 
dirt, dogs and darkness. The streets are the filthiest I have 
ever seen, as the town has no sewerage system. Every- 
thing is dumped into the public highways, and the garbage 
lies in monumental piles, which are seldom removed. 
The dogs are kept as public scavengers. There are 
100,000 in the city, of all ages, sizes and sexes — 

"Both mongrel, puppy, whelp and hound, 
And curs of low degree." 

These pests sleep all day and howl and bark all night. 
They are not canines of the famous u old dog Tray" order, 
"ever faithful and kind, whom grief could not drive 
away," nor do they belong to the same courageous stock 
as the celebrated Sancho, the Bagman s dog, who "would 
carry and fetch and run after a stick." It is written of 
Sancho — 

"He could well understand 
The word of command, 
And appear to doze 
With a crust on his nose." 

The dogs of Constantinople arc a stupid looking set, 
with wolfish faces, something like those of the coyotes of 
our prairies. They evidently descended from the wolves 
that anciently wandered over Turkey before civilization. 
These animals answer to no name ; they recognize no 
Owner or master ; they wag no tail in friendly recognition. 


No one pats their heads in kindly greeting. They belong 
to the public — they are tolerated, but not loved, and are 
recognized as city scavengers. They lie on the sidewalks 
(differing from men, who lie anywhere), on the door 
steps, in the windows and on the curbstones; yet no one 
dares harm them, it being against the law to do so. The 
killing of a man is punishable with three years' imprison- 
ment; the slaughter of a dog with seven years. So the 
killing of a dog in Constantinople is a dog-m&tic proposi- 
tion and terribly illogical. One certainly does not wish 
to discuss it with the legal authorities. 

Constantinople is surely the doggonest city in the 
world — a canine paradise — where the "purps" can lie down 
under any one's vine, fig tree, veranda or fence without 
molestation or disturbance, and "none shall make them 
afraid." The very air is impregnated with the odor of 
dogs, the streets saturated with their effluvia, the eye 
offended with their unsightly appearance and the ear 
shocked with their howls and barks. All days here are 
dog days. 

On the arrival of our ship at Constantinople we were 
met by the only Shriner in the city, and by the Junior 
Warden of the only Masonic Lodge, who came aboard, 
presented us (the Masons) with a beautiful Masonic 
emblem and invited us to visit their lodge that night and 
see "the work." 

As president of the Masonic Association of the Arabic 
I accepted the invitation. Some forty of us from the 
different State jurisdictions left the vessel about 8 :30 
o'clock and were soon carried to the city, where we were 
met by guides. The distance was probably half a mile, 
but as the streets are very dark, there being no electric 
lights, lamps very far apart, the way dirty, the rocks 
slippery and the declivities on an angle of about forty-five 


degrees, it was, both literally and figuratively, an uphill 
business. When we finally reached the lodge room we 
were panting like lizards and covered with perspiration. 

The lodge is English and the only one in the Turkish 
Empire. It may sound curious to the Masons of this 
country when I state that as president of the association 
I was accepted without examination as to signs, grips or 
words, and upon my vouching for the entire party, all 
my companions were admitted. We had the pleasure of 
seeing the work done in one of the degrees. 

After the lodge closed we were conducted to the finest 
hotel in the city where a nice lunch was served, with beer, 
wine, champagne, highballs and cocktails. We had many 
toasts, the first, of course, to His Majesty, the Sultan, 
the next to King Edward and the third to Roosevelt. Our 
entertainers were a jolly set of Johnnies, and expressed 
great affection and good will for Brother Jonathan. 

We were, to our profound gratification, provided with 
hacks on our return trip. I do not know whether our 
fraters feared we might be unable to navigate, and might 
"'fall by the wayside" after our libations, or whether they 
feared we might be devoured by the dogs ; but suffice it to 
say, we drove through dark and filthy thoroughfares, 
followed by a yelping pack, whose barks were echoed and 
answered from every street, byway and alley, by every 
kennel in Constantinople. We reached our ship in the 
small hours of the morning. 

One would naturally suppose that when a bone was 
thrown into the streets or a waiter emptied in front of 
the house, there would be a mad rush of dogs — a charge 
equal to that at Balakava — but notwithstanding the fact 
that the tail-waggers of Constantinople are a stupid 
looking set, they are said to be very intelligent, which 
brings forcibly to my mind the old Roman saying, ne crede 


Whether these dogs are governed by a "boss," as most 
of our American municipalities are, or by a king or presi- 
dent, I do not know, but it is said that there is no bone of 
contention between them — no graft and no struggle for 
spoils. As individuals, these dogs, of course, have troubles 
of their own — their personal loves, quarrels, barks, snarls 
and fights. I saw many battle-scarred veterans, earless, 
tailless and partly blind; also mathematical curs, many 
navigating by the rule of three. 

Whatever may be the character of the dogocracy of Con- 
stantinople, it is perfect and complete. The city is 
divided into wards or sections by some king dog, or by 
some unwritten but recognized law, and no dog of one 
section is allowed to trespass upon the preserves of another. 

The first invasion of another's territory is punished by 
having the ears gnawed off and the second offense by death. 
This is dog-msdism with a vengeance, but it is effective. 

I was told that this rule or dog law has been in existence 
for centuries. An English gentleman, who has lived in 
Constantinople for many years, informed me that there is 
a pack that regularly meets an express train daily to get 
the fragments from the dining cars. ~No other pack but 
this meets the train, and it never fails to show up, summer 
or winter, rain or shine. If these dogs should contract 
hydrophobia I fancy the people would have an awful time. 

The city of Constantinople was founded in the seventh 
century B. C. by the Greeks. It was on the Asiatic side 
of the Bosphoms and was known for more than a thousand 
years as Chalcedon. A new settlement was made later 
on the triangle which the Golden Horn forms at its 
junction with the Bosphorus, and was called Byzantium. 
The name remained Byzantium until changed to Constan- 
tinople in honor of Constantine. 

These shores have many legends attached to them — 


legends that antedate the dawn of authentic history. The 
Bosphorus derived its name from the divine (bos) bull, 
which carried Europa across in safety. There are also 
fables about the Golden Fleece, the Harpies, x\pollo, Pan 
and Aphrodite. 

Darius, on his expedition against Greece, captured the 
city, and Xerxes built the first pontoon or bridge of boats 
across the Hellespont in order that his vast army might 
cross over. 

The Macedonians, under Philip, attempted to capture 
the city by night, but the moon appearing through the 
clouds, revealed the enemy to the defenders, hence the 
adoption of the crescent by the Turks. This emblem was 
afterwards adopted by the followers of the prophet. 

The city has suffered many sieges and assaults from 
Goth, German and Moslem. To-day in Stamboul may 
be seen a nameless grave,- secretly revered by the Greeks, 
because it contains the remains of the last Constantine, 
who threw himself in the breach made in the walls by 
Moslem cannon when the final assault occurred, and there 
perished. Riding in triumph through the Hippodrome 
Mohammed, Avith his mace, struck off the head of one of 
the brazen serpents that the first Constantine had taken 
from Delphi, commemorative of the defeat of Xerxes. 

The most attractive building in the city is the mosque 
of Sancta Sophia, the great cathedral of Constantine and 
Justinian. It is a magnificent pile, and its marble floor 
is covered with thousands of dollars' worth of rich rugs. 
~No one is allowed to enter its sacred precincts unless bare- 
footed or slipper-shod. On the occasion of our visit I 
happened to get a pair of slippers that were too large for 
me. The struggles I made to shuffle along and keep them 
on were amusing to others, but quite embarrassing to me. 
One old fellow, in spite of his efforts, got one slipper off 


at nearly every step, and was finally ordered out for 
profaning the temple. 

This superb building cost $64,000,000, and was com- 
pleted in the year 537. It is said that when Mohammed 
entered the city in triupmh he rode his horse into Sancta 
Sophia. The print of his bloody hand is shown high up 
on the wall, but no explanation is given as to how a man, 
even on horseback, could reach that elevation. 

This beautiful edifice is the abode of thousands of 
pigeons, which are allowed free access to all parts of the 
interior, and, consequently create a good deal of filth. 
The pigeon is sacred with the followers of the prophet, 
owing to the tradition that Mohammed, when in great 
distress, was fed by these birds, just as Elijah is said to 
have been fed by the ravens. 

Near Seraglio Point Constantine erected his Cathedral 
Church (326) and consecrated it, not to an inferior saint, 
but to the Lord Himself, the Divine "Wisdom" of 
Proverbs viii. — the Hagia Sophia. The church was 
destroyed by fire in 404. It was rebuilt with such mag- 
nificence by Justinian, that when it was finished he 
entered the completed edifice exclaiming, "Solomon, I 
have conquered thee." The great dome rises 180 feet 
from the floor and presents a most impressive and im- 
posing appearance. Some of the splendid columns used 
in this building came from the Temple of Diana at 

It is indeed sad to think that this splendid structure, 
erected originally by Constantine, the first Christian 
Roman Emperor, should have become a Turkish mosque. 

There are many other mosques in the city. The Mosque 
of Ahmed I. is very fine with its six graceful, towering 
minarets. Next comes the Mosque of Mohammed, the 
Conqueror, and then the Mosaic Mosque, though there are 
still others of less import. 


In the Treasury building is the celebrated Persian 
throne made of beaten gold and ornamented with rubies 
and emeralds. This was captured in 1514 by Selim I. 
In this building is also the emerald referred to by Lew 
Wallace in his "Prince of India." 

The Imperial Museum contains many archaeological 
treasures, notably the Sidon Sarcophagi, from the city of 
that name, the oldest town of Phoenicia. It also contains 
colections from Greece, Rome and Jerusalem. Another 
sarcophagus, called "The Weepers," shows eighteen 
women, each in a different attitude of grief. The Alexan- 
der Sarcophagus of Pentelic marble is regarded as the 
finest sample of Greek art in existence, and is in a fine 
state of preservation. It has carved upon it battle and 
hunting scenes of exquisite design and workmanship. 
The Tabnith Sarcophagus, which was found to contain 
the withered body of Talmith, a Sidonian King, is sup- 
posed to have been made in Memphis the fourth century 
before Christ and sent to Sidon. 

Notwithstanding the following inscription it was 
moved: "If you raise the cover, may you have no pos- 
terity among the living nor any bed among the dead." 
But the warning served no purpose and has not been 
respected, as has the imprecation written by Shakespeare 
on his tomb. 

Many remains of the old walls are to be seen, as well 
as some of the great subterranean cisterns that supplied 
Constantinople with water when besieged. 

The Grand Bazaar is a town in itself and contains, it 
is said, 700 stores, all under one roof or numerous cupolas, 
through which the sun never penetrates. The veiled 
women, attended by eunuchs, the vast crowds of people 
from different countries, the great variety of Oriental 
wares and the incomprehensible jargon all serve to make 


an engrossing and bewildering scene. Perley and "The 
Young Voyager 7 ' could not resist the temptation to buy 
some of the curiously shaped Turkish swords. 

Among the novelties extensively purchased here, par- 
ticularly by the ladies, is that delicious confection known 
as " Turkish delight," the choicest of the sweets of the 
Orient. The men also buy largely of Turkish cigarettes. 

Many curious sights strike one's eye in this city. The 
invariable headgear of the Turk is the fez ? a most uncom- 
fortable covering for the cranium, as it is no protection 
against either sun or rain. The religion of the prophet 
requires that the Turk shall wear it, and after death the 
fez rests in stone over the slab that stands at the head of 
his grave. Every Turk wears a fez, but every one who 
wears a fez is not a Turk. 

Another religious law requires that Turkish ladies shall 
cover their faces in the street, but from the glimpses I 
got I think it quite unnecessary, as they are not very 
attractive. Turks are not allowed by their religion to 
marry one of another religion. It sometimes happens, 
however, that a man of another creed falls so much in 
love with a Turkish beauty that he even turns Turk to 
get her. This is a simple process. A small vein is 
opened or a cut made in the flesh and a little blood allowed 
to flow, but woe to the fellow if he recants. The Sultan 
asks for his head, and as the Sultan's will is law he gets 
what he calls for. 

The head cover of the Turkish ladies is called, in the 
Turkish language, "yoshmok." Theological students are 
designated by a white band or turban around the fez. 
The priests who wear green turbans have made the 
pilgrimage to Mecca and are regarded with more reverence 
than the ordinary priest. 

Turkish women dress chiefly in black, but colors are 


permissible. The bright red head dress of the Turk, 
mingling with the peculiar clothes of the Armenian, the 
quaint costumes of the Greek and of other nations, make 
the streets quite lievly and the scene an animated one. 

In Spain and Italy the miserable little donkey is the 
beast of burden, but here it is man himself. The Turkish 
carrier is called "Hamal." He wears a leather hump on 
his back to facilitate his carrying immense loads. We 
saw men staggering under burdens weighing several 
hundred pounds and bent nearly double. Perspiration 
was pouring down their livid faces, while every muscle 
and nerve were strained to its utmost tension. 

A couple of these men carry a barrel weighing 500 
pounds suspended between two poles resting on their 
shoulders. Fresh meats strung on poles are hawked about 
the thoroughfares and thread, circular in shape, is peddled 
at the street corners. 

As the Turkish government does not hesitate to open 
letters coming through its mails, Great Britain, Germany, 
Italy and other nations have post-offices of their own and 
mail and distribute the letters sent to and received by their 
subjects. This concession was granted under the Berlin 

The panoramic view from the Arabic was fine. The 
shores of the Bosphorus are lined with the palaces of the 
Sultan. He has twenty-two in all, and we suppose a 
number of wives in each. It is understood he never sleeps 
two nights successively in the same bed. The Sultan has 
360 wives. When it was asked why he did not have 365, 
or one for every day in the year, Dr. Jordan very ungal- 
lantly replied, "Do you not think His Majesty needs a 
little peace and rest?" 

Whenever the ruler of another country notifies His 
Majesty that he will pay him a visit the Sultan has a 


palace built especially for the accommodation of his guest. 

A magnificent structure was pointed out as having been 
built at a cost of many thousands for the King of Italy. 
This palace was occupied only four days by the royal 
guest, and still remains vacant, but is guarded by military. 
Along the shores are the summer hotels and palaces of the 
representatives of various nations. 

The Shah of Persia had one built especially for his 
representative. The governments of England, France, 
Germany and other nations each have princely edifices for 
their ministers and ambassadors. Many wealthy mer- 
chants likewise have their summer residences and villas 
along the shores of the Bosphorus. 

The city of Constantinople is divided by the Bosphorus 
and the Golden Horn into three parts — Galata and Pera, 
north of the Golden Horn, occupied chiefly by Europeans ; 
Stamboul, the old city in which the Turk predominates, 
and Scutari, on the Asiatic side, which is cosmopolitan. 

The Galata bridge, as a work of art, is a poor affair, 
but the crowds that cross and recross it equal, if they do 
not surpass, the tide of humanity that goes over old London 
bridge. Here we see people from every nation, clad in all 
kinds of costumes of every color, riding, walking, begging, 
laughing and crying; and, to add to the hurly burly, 
fakirs offering all kinds of curios for sale and exhibiting 
signs and placards in many languages, appeal to you. 

We steamed up the Bosphorus into the Black Sea 
beyond Robert College, an American missionary school, 
where we were saluted as we passed, both going and 
returning, with cheers and waving of flags and handker- 
chiefs by the scholars and inmates. 

The college is situated on the European side of the 
Bosphorus, a few miles from Constantinople. It was 
founded in 1863 and is doing a wonderful work. The 



students number about 300, with a list of graduates 
numbering about 400, and partial course students nearly 
2,500. Its property and endowments are valued at 

The students are mostly Armenians, Greeks and Bul- 
garians. The college, through its charter, is a part of the 
University of New York. Mr. Robert gave $30,000 
towards the foundation of this mission. It is now self- 
supporting and is a magnificent monument of Christian 

The same may be said of the American School for Girls 
at Scutari, on the Asiatic side, which is being conducted 
by Americans. Members of the Alumnae of this college 
visited the Arabic the night before we left and gave a 
delightful entertainment of songs and recitations. It was 
the privilege of the tourists to contribute to the fund for 
the support of this institution. This school has a faculty 
of thirty-one, chiefly Americans, and about 160 students. 
It is religious but non-sectarian. 

We left the city of Constantinople without regret and 
have no desire to see it again. When we think of it here- 
after the place will be associated with recollections of 
nameless odors and unsightly scenes, while discordant 
sounds will arise in our ears. But let me say, apropos of 
Constantinople, that we were impressed with the pro- 
fundity and apparent sincerity of the Turks in their 
religion. Their belief is that "prayers are better than 
sleep." Five times a day the faithful prostrates himself 
with his face towards Mecca. The Muezzin's call to 
prayer is frequently heard from the minarets of the 
mosques. Translated, it is as follows: 

"God is great. (Repeated four times.) 
I bear witness that there is no God but God (repeated twice) ; 
Come to prayers, come to prayers; 
Come to salvation, come to salvation; 
God is great; there is no other God but God." 


The Sultan is not only a political autocrat, but also the 
religious head of Islam ; yet notwithstanding the fact that 
it is against Moslem law for foreigners to have places for 
their worship, there are in Constantinople a Bulgarian 
Church, a Church of England, a Jewish Mission Chapel, 
a Free Church of Scotland, and the American Board 
(Congregational) . 

In their Oriental language, Smyrna, the chief town of 
Asia Minor, is called by the Asiatics "The lovely, the 
ornament of Asia." On arriving we saw the city spread 
out before us like a picture, beginning at the margin of 
the bay and climbing the hills in a series of terraces, with 
high ranges of mountains in the background. The town's 
dark groves of cypress, its painted balconies, the minarets 
of its mosques and its church spires make a beautiful and 
alluring picture. 

Smyrna is a city of considerable size, having a popula- 
tion of some 225,000. It was the home of the fabled 
Croesus, whose name was the synonym for wealth before 
the infamous American combines and trusts created the 
Rockefellers and Carnegies et id omne genus. 

Charles Dudley Warner has characterized Smyrna as 
an "Asiatic city with a European face ; it produces nothing 
and exchanges everything; it is hospitable to all religions 
and conspicuous for none, and it is the paradise of the 
Turk, the home of luxury and of beautiful women." It 
is also one of the seven cities claiming to be the birthplace 
of Homer. 

Although the followers of Christ were first called Chris- 
tians at Antioch, Christianity took deep root here, and 
Smyrna became one of the seven churches referred to in 
the Book of Revelations. Here, too, Polycarp, the second 
Bishop of Smyrna, suffered martyrdom. His remains are 
buried here. The Bishop's last words, when pressed to 


recant his faith in Christ, have become famous — "Eighty 
and six years have I served Him, and He has never done 
me wrong ; how then can I blaspheme my King that saved 
me." These noble utterances came from his lips about 
155 A. D. 

After many conflicts between Arabs and Turks on the 
one side and the Knights of Malta on the other, Smyrna 
passed into the hands of the Turks, who still retain it. 

There are two railroads giving access to the interior of 
the country. This, combined with its beautiful harbor, 
makes it a prominent and wealthy city. But these inno- 
vations of railroads and electric street cars have not retired 
into innocuous desuetude the old "ship of the desert," of 
whom it may be truly said — 

"Steam may come and steam may go, 
But ye camel goes on forever" — 

for most of the merchandise to this day finds its way into 
the city on the backs of these patient beasts, and in the 
streets may be seen caravans laden with goods. Evolution 
has not reached the camel. 

The East is not famous for its iconoclastic ideas. The 
Oriental folk are noted for being a people opposed to 
change, and are very much on "the-same-yesterday-and- 
to-day-and-forever" order. 

Smyrna is known the world over for its figs and dates; 
it is also celebrated for its raisins, opium, spices, silks, 
sponges and especially for its Oriental rugs, carpets and 
embroideries. Here, as elsewhere over the world, can be 
seen the ancient Roman aqueducts, built in the third 
century before Christ, which brought water from a spot 
fifteen miles distant. 

The bazaars, while not so extensive as those of Con- 
stantinople, yet contain quite a variety of wares of all 




kinds, and prices are more reasonable than in Constanti- 
nople. Smyrna is a great market for rugs. There are 
said to be about 5,000 persons engaged in the manufacture 
of carpets and rugs in the city. Many of our ladies 
bought themselves rich — or rather poor — in the rug line. 
Over forty mosques rise heavenward in the city and there 
are quite a number of Greek, Roman, Armenian and other 
churches in the city. There is also an American mission 
in Smyrna and an American college for boys and girls. 

From Smyrna we journeyed to Ephesus. Going to the 
railroad station we took street cars drawn by horses, with 
traces made of ropes. 

The distance from Smyrna to Ephesus is about fifty 
miles, and the compartment cars are very comfortable. 
Most of the route is along a beautiful valley, with lovely 
verdure and blooming fruit trees. We saw the peasants 
at work in the fields, and as we beheld them scattering 
the seed the parable of the sower came to mind, for there 
he was before us. "Behold a sower went forth to sow," 
as he did when our Lord uttered this beautiful allegory. 

The land is quite fertile. We saw fine wheat, figs, 
olives, dates, grapes and almonds, as well as the so-called 
English walnut, growing in profusion, while the hills in 
the background cast shifting shadows over the landscape 
in a beautiful hide-and-seek fashion, that accentuated its 
beauties and added to the picturesqueness of the scene. 

Licorice root is also grown here quite extensively, this 
being the largest market in the world for this product. 
And here, too, we found the agent for that great octopus, 
the American Tobacco Company, negotiating for the whole 
output, and thus shutting off competition and driving 
another nail into the coffin of individual enterprise and 
personal initiative. 

The city of Ephesus of to-day is of very small proposi- 



tions. Its ruins, its historic reputation and its sacerdotal 
memories are its chief attractions. 

Arriving at the station, where there are a few scattered 
houses, we were told that the ancient site of the city is 
about a mile off, but an Asiatic mile and an American mile 
are two distinct and different propositions ; in other words, 
we concluded the distance was about four miles, inter- 
spersed with rocks, stones, mud and the debris of ancient 
temples, up hill and down, into boggy land. 

We, however, got over the ground very well, considering 
we met with a stiff breeze from the Arctic regions or some 
other cold source. 

The first ruin we came to was that of St. John's Church, 
of which nothing now remains save a few pillars and 
masses of cemented brick and stone. Between one portion 
of the walls a large tree has grown. It is unpleasantly 
suggestive of the many divisions in the Church. We next 
went past the Cave of the Seven Sleepers, whose repose 
we made no attempt to disturb. After this we viewed 
the remains of the Gymnasium, and beyond, a trench full 
of white marble blocks, the remnants of a Roman temple. 
ISText we saw the Circular Temple, erroneously called the 
Tomb of St. Luke. Farther on were the ruins of the 
Wool Market, as shown by the inscriptions found there. 

The most interesting of all the ruins now presented 
themselves — the theatre mentioned in the nineteenth 
chapter of Acts. As we stood within the circuit of its 
marble walls, the marble seats rising in tiers one above 
the other on each side, we could imagine the scene so 
graphically described between St. Paul and Demetrius, 
the "silversmith, which made silver shrines for Diana" 
that "brought no small gain unto the craftsmen." Demet- 
rius was afraid Paul's teaching would put him out of 
business, for the former represented a craft that sold 
temple models to the people. 



Here Paul pleaded for two hours for a hearing, but the 
rabble drowned his voice with the cry, "Great is Diana of 
the Ephesians," in the same way as the modern patriot's 
voice is sometimes hushed by the vulgar herd. The seat- 
ing capacity of the building was 25,000 persons. Among 
the other ruins are the Greek Tower, or Prison of St. 
Paul, the church in which the third Ecumenical Con- 
ference was held (481). 

Last of all we went to the ruins of the Temple of Diana 
itself, which was one of the seven wonders of the world, 
and was considered one of the most magnificent structures 
of ancient times. Pliny tells us that it was 425 feet long 
and 225 wide, and that 127 columns gave support to the 
roof. Only the remains of the substructure and of the 
pavement are now left. 

There are a great mass of marble fragments, and here 
one of our ministers — a man of an archaeological turn of 
mind — came to grief. He attempted to conceal a frag- 
ment of marble under his coat and was arrested by the 
guard, but was eventually released. Many of the marbles 
of this splendid building have been carried to the British 

After viewing these ruins in a piercing cold wind, 
which chilled us to the marrow, "The Young Voyager" 
and the writer decided to make the return trip on a 
donkey, so I hired one a little larger than the ordinary 
goat. The diminutive creature would doubtless have 
protested at the imposition, as did Balaam's beast, had he 
been endowed with the power of speech. But as he could 
utter no complaints, he trotted alon^ very nicely, picking 
his steps gracefully and carefully over the rocks and 
stones and through mud and water, with admirable 
patience and caution. When within about half a mile 
of the station, however, he let out a blast from his trumpet 
that went forth with a resonant sound upon the lambent 


air, if not musically, certainly sonorously and with far- 
reaching effect. In a few seconds this blast was returned 
by his father, mother, brother, wife, sister and other 
relatives — 
"For, while he spake, a braying ass did sing most loud and clear." 

^To sooner did the replies reach my donkey's ears 
expectant, than he raised his tail high in the air and 
started off at full gallop. In vain I screamed "Whoa," 
"whoa," "wah !" The more I pulled and "hollered," the 
faster he went, for the blasted beast did not understand 
English. The wind was blowing about forty miles an 
hour, while one of my stirrup leathers was useless. And 
there I was, holding on like grim death, to the donkey with 
one hand and with the other pressing my hat down on 
my ears, as my raincoat flapped in the wind like the sails 
of a ship in a gale. The ride of John Gilpin was nothing 
to compare to this Ephesus ride. Finally, we got to the 
station, but for several days I found it pleasant to dine at 
a lunch counter and to sit down as little as possible. 

"The Young Voyager's" beast, whose name was "John," 
was a slow animal, disposed to ruminate by the roadside, 
picking a tuft of grass here and a thistle there. The rider 
protested against these dilatory movements by sundry 
kicks and complaints aimed at the animal's owner, who 
always trots along beside his beast. The owner of the 
donkey could not speak English, but made signs to "The 
Young Voyager" to grasp the animal's tail and give it a 
twist, which the rider did with prompt, if not satisfactory, 
results. This course acted like a "live wire," for his 
donkey started on a run with heels in the air. 


'The snorting beast began to trot, whicn galled him in his seat, 
So, 'Fair and softly John,' he cried, but 'John' he cried in vain: 
That trot became a gallop soon, in spite of curb and rein; 
So stooping down, as needs he must, who cannot sit upright. 
He grasped the mane with both his hands, and eke with all his 



The people seeing me in the lead, and "The Young 
Voyager" evidently trying to overtake me, thought we 
Avere running a race, and as we went through the village — 

"The dogs did bark, the children screamed, up flew the windows 
And every soul cried out 'Well done' as loud as he could bawl." 

The result was that "The Young Voyager" also had to 
do penance in an upright position. 

Great are the asses of Ephesus ! Both of our little 
donkeys were like Kosinante, the famous steed of Don 
Quixote — poor in flesh. A strong man could have carried 
both, one under each arm or on his shoulders. 

At Ephesus we found the fulfillment of Revelations, 
I will remove thy candlestick out of its place," for not 
even a single place of worship of the Christians remains. 

Ephesus is a mass of ruins ; its harbor, where fleets once 
moored in safety and received and discharged cargoes, is 
now filled up and overgrown with weeds. Desolation 
broods where once was a city of considerable importance. 
This is evidently a visitation from God, as St. John uses 
the words, "Because thou hast left thy first love." 

The run from Smyrna to Ephesus was made with an 
American locomotive. We noticed Oliver chilled plows 
and other Yankee machinery in use in this fertile section. 
Our party passed a caravan of seventy or seventy-five 
camels en route to distant Persia. They were laden with 
Syrian merchandise, which was to be exchanged for the 
valuable products from the hand looms of that beautiful 
land of Cyprus and the Queen of Sheba. It takes six 
months to make this journey. 

Going to Smyrna from Constantinople we steamed 
through the Greek Archipelago, stopping in the Bay of 
Acree opposite Caifa and Mount Carmel. We also passed 
the site of ancient Troy, where our mind naturally 


reverted to the great epic of Homer, who recounts so 
graphically the ten-years' siege by the Grecians and the 
city's ultimate fall and destruction. Nothing but an 
undistinguishable mass of ruins now remains to mark 
the spot. We likewise steamed by the Island of Rhodes, 
once the headquarters of the Knights of St. John, and 
Cyprus, one of the largest islands of the Mediterranean. 
On the east we could see the Mountains of Lebanon, while 
Taurus appeared on the north. 

Cyprus was celebrated in antiquity as the birthplace 
and abode of Aphrodite, the Goddess of Love and Wed- 
lock, in Greek mythology. 

The splendid cedars that nourished in the days of 
Fliram and Solomon, and that were used in the building 
and adornment of the temple, have long since disappeared, 
and the mountains at a distance look bleak and desolate, 
a cap of white resting upon their loftiest peaks. 

Carmel is intimately associated with the romantic adven- 
tures of David. In this section dwelt Nabal, whose wife 
David married. Poor Nabal had hardly gotten cold 
before the ardent David wrote her a note or sent her 
word that he would like "to take her to him to wife." Of 
Abigail it might truly be said: 

"Frailty, thy name is woman! 
A little month; or ere those shoes were old, 
With which she follow'd her poor husband's body 
Like Niobe, all tears," 

And si io at once consents, and becomes one of the better 
halves of the son of Jesse, for it is recorded in Holy Writ: 
"And Abigail hasted and arose, and rode upon an ass, 
with five damsels of hers that went with her, and she 
wont after the messengers of David, and became his wife." 
Mount Carmel is celebrated in the Old Testament as 
the place of residence of the Prophets Elijah and Elisha. 


It was here the old prophet made that impassioned address 
and said unto the people: "How long halt ye between 
two opinions ? If the Lord be God, follow Him ; but if 
Baal, then follow him." And it is recorded, "the people 
answered him not a word." 

The very place is pointed out where Elijah mocked the 
Baalites, and said to them concerning their god: "Cry 
aloud, for he is god ; either he is talking, or he is pursuing, 
or he is in a journey, or peradventure he sleepeth and 
must be awaked." 

The place of the sacrifice also is pointed out, as well 
as the place at the Brook Kishon, where the false prophets 
were slain. Over Elijah's cave in which he dwelt is 
built the monastery of Mount Carmel. The mountain 
itself is barren, but the slopes have been settled by a 
German colony, who make good wine from the grapes 
grown in their vineyards. From the ship to the shore the 
distance is about a mile, and we took the trip in small 
boats pulled by Arabs, all clad in their peculiar costume, 
and barefooted. They pull the oars standing up, putting 
one foot against the bench or seat in front of them, and 
the other on the bottom of the boat, which gives them good 
vantage ground to pull from. While working the oars 
the Arabs chant one of their plaintive and melancholy airs 
to the beat of the oars. 

The greatest elevation above the town is pointed out as 
being the place from which the servant of Elijah, after 
going the seventh time, discerned "a little cloud out of 
the sea, like a man's hand." Guides also call the atten- 
tion of strangers to the place where Jael committed her 
cruel and inhuman act in smiting Sisera. Beyond lies 
the great fertile plain of Esdraelon, where Barak and 
Gideon won their victories, and where Saul and Josiah 
fell. Jews, Gentiles, Saracens, Christians, Crusaders, 


Frenchmen, Egyptians, Persians, Druses, Turks and 
Arabs — warriors of almost every nation — have pitched 
their tents in the plain of Esdraelon. 

Dr. Power, in one of his letters, says: "It is a vast 
meadow, rich as an Illinois prairie, twenty miles in 
length, or more, by perhaps ten in width, largely owned 
by one man in Beyrout, who pays his peasant farmers a 
franc a day, and revels in wealth, while the poor are 
oppressed. The people here are beggars in a land. which 
should blossom as the rose, because of the burden of 
taxation and the hard hand of the oppressor. One cannot 
find more fertile soil; wheat, barley, grapes, figs, olives 
and pomegranites yield abundantly. It is spring and the 
peasants are ploughing and the fields are covered with 
tens of thousands of lovely flowers. Our guide said: 
'We do not cultivate flowers. We do not need to ; God 
gives them.' " r 


Dr. S. D. Bartle's Description of the Holy Land — Two Days at 
Nazareth — Missionary Work Among Native Children — Weak- 
ness of the Turkish Government — Sea of Galilee — Scenes in 
the Home of Our Lord — Dr. John D. Jordan's Visit to Places 
Mode Sacred and Historic by Christ — Nazareth of To-Day — 
Traditions Told the Traveler — Valley of Esdraelon — Mount of 
Transfiguration and Hills of Gilboa — Place of the Sacrifice — 
Jacob's Well and the Mount of Olives — Tomb of the Sons of 
Levi — Dr. F. D. Powers' Beautiful Rhapsody on Nazareth — 
Cradle of Religion — Pestiferous Children. 

Our immediate party of three did not take the Galilee 
and Samaria trip. Those going on this journey left the 
cruise at Caifa and rejoined us later on. I submit a 
delightful account of this trip, written by my versatile 
friend, the Rev. S. D. Bartle, of Mechanicsville, Iowa. 
It follows: 

"We, who were to take the overland trip through 
Galilee and Samaria, did not think much about dinner 
on March 7th, for we were on deck looking at the land in 
the distance, and at noon we landed at Caifa, under the 
shadow of Mount Carmel. It seemed as if the entire 
town had come out to meet and welcome us with their 
salutation for 'baksheesh/ which, being interpreted, 
means 'give me a present/ All the natives must have 
thought that the Americans were gold mines, for it was 
'baksheesh' from the time we landed at Caifa until we 
took the steamer at Joppa for Egypt. 

"Our overland trip transcended all my most glowing 
expectations. I have ridden over the Alps and Rockies, 
through the forests and over the plains of our great 
country, yet this trip was infinitely more fascinating than 


anything I had ever seen. At every turn we came face 
to face with realities of history more wonderful than 
dreams. Up on that mountain Elijah triumphed over 
Baal; yonder Gideon won his first victory; there Barak 
defeated the army of Jabin; not far beyond Saul and 
Josiah met ignominious death; under that tree, or its 
ancestor, Jael drove the nail into Sisera's head; in that 
village John and James were born; this is the home of 
Jesus' childhood; on the horned Hattin yonder Jesus 
preached that wonderful 'Sermon on the Mount' ; that 
rounded mount is Tabor; this village is Cana; we are 
now on the road where Jesus healed the nobleman's son; 
off yonder is the home of Magdalene; that queen of 
mountains with snowy hair is Hermon, and this is the 
Sea of Galilee — all these came under our observation from 
Caifa to Tiberias. And over all these hang the spell of 
a history of fovir thousand years. 

"If a person adjust (himself to the changes from the 
grandeur of America to his now surroundings, he can 
see beauty that cannot be described by pen — beauty to 
which justice cannot be done by paint and brush. It is 
a land of flowers. The cultivated ones are usually grown 
behind stone walls, and very few can see them; but there 
the wild flowers grow everywhere. To gaze upon them 
set my soul on fire, and I could not help but exclaim with 
Christ, 'that even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed 
like one of these.' 

The City of Nazareth. 

"We spent two nights in Nazareth, a city despised by 
Jesus' contemporaries, but dear to the hearts of all Chris- 
tendom as the home of our Redeemer's boyhood. The 
natural features of the town are precisely such as are 
pictured in the Gospel narrative; built in terraces 1,100 


feet above the level of the sea on one of the rocky hills 
enclosing the valley basin and overtopped by precipitous 
heights, from which we got a most commanding view of 
the country from the sea to the Jordan Valley, and from 
Hermon to Tabor, and the southern highlands. ~No 
thoughtful man or woman can look over this territory 
unmoved, for here the world forces have frequently con- 
tended for the world-wide ideas in the fierce debate of 
battle. And many of the students of the prophets think 
that here is to occur the last great fight between the forces 
of good and evil. 

"The town is certainly picturesque, many of the houses 
being built right up against the perpendicular rocks, and 
overlooking the roofs of those on the streets below. 
Undoubtedly most of the traditional sacred places here are 
apocryphal, such as the carpenter-shop of Jesus and the 
synagogue in which He preached, as well as other places. 
Yet there- are certainly two places where the Holy Child 
did go — namely, the crags overlooking the city and the 
ancient fountain where the whole community for many 
generations has drawn its water. You cannot approach 
any sacred locality here without running up against the 
tables of money changers, and without an inglorious battle 
with a swarm of human mosquitoes, which sing their 
pestilential songs while seeking to suck a drop of your 
blood. Tradesmen and beggars are everywhere. 

"While in this city we had the great privilege of spend- 
ing the afternoon with Miss Frances E. Newton, Superin- 
tendent of the Church Missionary Society of England, 
which conducts several day schools here — Cana, Er-Reinen, 
Ma'lul, Yafa and Sharjarah. These schools are doing a 
grand work for the native children, and I believe that in 
the future, as the outcome of this great work, Palestine 
will be a better and cleaner land. We saw the change it 
made in the native homes for the better. 


"In carrying on this educational work they are follow- 
ing very closely in the Master's footsteps, for 'He went 
about all Galilee, teaching.' Most probably he taught in 
some of these self -same villages. One scene touched our 
hearts as we came into a room where there were twenty- 
four girls from thirteen to fifteen years of age. Miss 
Newton asked them to sing the song of welcome. They 
sang it well. Here are the words: 

"'Welcome to Nazareth, thrice blessed spot; 
Jesus our Saviour did here fix His lot, 
Shall we not venerate the very sod 
That once was walked by the dear Son of God? 

" 'Welcome to Nazareth gladly we sing, 
Home of our Shepherd, our Saviour, our King; 
Welcome, yes welcome, oh! word of good cheer 
To the bright land of our Saviour so dear. 

"'Welcome to Nazareth, sing we to-day; 

Welcome kind friends' from a land far away, 
Remember when home with your children so dear 
To pray for the children who welcomed you here.' 

"The weakness of the Turkish government is shown in 
an incident that happened in a village near Cana two days 
before we arrived there. A young man went out into the 
fields to plough, taking with him eight oxen. There is a 
village near there that has a bad name because all the 
people there are exceedingly wicked. Some of these 
people murdered the young man and stole his oxen. 
When the parents found their son dead in the field with 
his head battered to a jelly, they notified the government 
officials at Nazareth. Several officers were sent to find 
the murderers and oxen. After they discovered the oxen 
in this village they returned and told the parents what 
they had found, but added : 'We can do nothing because 


we are afraid of the people.' Such a government ! The 
poor people are taxed to death, having to pay not less than 
33 per cent, on all products and sometimes as high as 62 
per cent. 

The Sea of Galilee. 

"If one comes to the Sea of Galilee expecting to find 
the human conditions in any way like those created in his 
mind by the Gospel story, he will be sadly disappointed. 
There is not a place made sacred by the feet of Jesus left 
to welcome us. The city of Tiberias, where we spent a 
night, was never entered by our Lord; and that alone of 
the once many happy towns along this shore is able to give 
us shelter. 

"And its citizens are a wretched set. About the only 
thing here which seems to be alive is the wicked flea. 
The Arabs say that this is his capital, and that here he 
reaches his tallest stature. I believe them. Most all of 
our party carried home unmistakable proofs of his villany. 

"The country on the western shore of the sea, which 
was the scene of the happiest period of our Saviour's 
ministry, is blighted beyond all description. Yet it was 
once, as Josephus describes it, 'an earthly paradise.' A 
portion of it was called, because of its natural treasures, 
Genesreth, which means 'garden of riches.' On these 
shores were flourishing towns, such as Capernaum, Beth- 
saida, Magdala and Tiberias, besides many happy hamlets. 
Its hillsides were covered with vineyards, olive orchards 
and fields of yellow grain. Now bare rocks, fruitless 
wildernesses and hot sands are there. Nearlv all the 
people have fled, and the few who remain are, for the 
most part, worn and wasted by poverty and disease. 

"During our eight days' overland trip there is one 
thing we suffered, and we shall never forget it. The 


water is very impure. No doubt the water is pure at the 
starting place, but if you saw what it went through and 
how careful (?) the natives were in getting it you would 
do as we did — go without it. For eight days I never 
drank one glass of water in any form — no tea, coffee, or 
anything else. The most of us ate our meals without 
anything to drink but we had all the oranges we wanted 
and the juice was our water. The first two or three days 
it seemed that we must drink but by the time we arrived 
in Jerusalem we did not mind it. Just as one of the 
boys put it, 'it was hard luck/ 

? ?? 

Nazareth and the Nazarenes of To-Day. 

Some wiseacre has said, "In a multitude of counsellors 
there is wisdom." This trite old saw is generally regarded 
as true. Having this in mind, I next give the graphic 
account of the same trip by the Rev. John D. Jordan, 
D. D., of Savannah, Ga., to be followed by the narrative 
of Dr. F. D. Power, D. D., of Washington, D. C, who 
have kindly contributed the same for my use. 

"Nazareth, Galilee, March 9th. — I greet you from 
the home of our Lord. I presume that this little city of 
8,000 motley inhabitants looks little like the Nazareth 
of His day, when its reputation was so bad that it was 
thought that no good thing could come out of it. The 
general outline of the country must be pretty much as it 
was in His day, for it is stone. Nazareth is a city built 
on a hillside, which curves as a half moon, opening toward 
the south. There are two modern hotels here, where 
guests are made fairly comfortable. The Victoria is the 
better. Its proprietor and most of his help can speak 
some English. The people are chifly shepherds, crafts- 
men, vine dressers and farmers. 

"I saw hero; an old-fashioned corn-mill which reminded 


nie of the days when I was a boy and went to mill. We 
saw many workshops, no doubt like the one in which our 
Lord worked, for the customs of the people as to dress 
and manner of life have not changed in all the centuries. 
One can hardly believe it, but it is so, and when he sees 
things as they are, he no< longer doubts. 

"There are many Christians in Nazareth, chiefly of the 
Greek and Latin churches, but they impressed me as little 
ahead of the heathen or Mohammedans. They have so 
much superstition and falsehood as to make them appear 
in great and pitiful contrast with Christians of America. 
They have erected their churches on the supposedly sacred 
places. Unfortunately, each of the two churches claims 
a separate and distinct spot for each incident. In one 
Latin Church they show the exact spot where Mary stood 
when the angel appeared to her and announced that she 
should become the mother of the Messiah. Of course, 
they call this the Church of the Annunciation. Back 
under this same church is a kitchen, claimed to be the 
very kitchen in which Mary did her cooking. In that 
kitchen is what is claimed to be the original door or gate 
to the Lord's workshop. 

"Solemnity ceases to be serious when, a few hundred 
yards further on, is a Greek Church into which there 
gushes a great fountain of water, and they tell you it was 
on this spot, while taking water from the fountain, that 
the angel made his announcement to Mary. 

"The Latins have another church, a part of which they 
claim is the walls of the synagogue in which our Lord 
preached from Isaiah exi., 1-3, as narrated by Luke, 
iv., 18-19. Then they take you nearby to a place called 
the 'Hill of Precipitation/ where the people of this town 
tried to destroy Jesus after the sermon, as recorded in 
Luke iv., 29-32. This might impress one more favorably, 



but for the fact that a few hundred yards away the 
Greeks have a church and hill of which they tell the 
same story. Just how two Christian churches can tell 
such opposite stories, and both be infallible, I cannot 
determine. What miserable liars the heathen must believe 
us Christians to be, and this belief is not without some 

At the Fountain. 

"There is a splendid fountain or spring in Nazareth, 
out of which gushes great streams of water coming down 
from the mountain side. By this spring or fountain is 
the place to see the village people. They are coming and 
going all day, of all ages and sexes, but chiefly women 
and children. You see them washing their feet, hands and 
faces, their dirty clothes, the entrails of a goat or sheep 
and filling their water 'pots all from the same spring. 
What a fine, pure water they might have if they would 
only keep it clean ! 

"The same thing is true of all these towns and cities. 
The question arises as to what the traveler is to do for 
water to drink. Some do without, drinking beer or light 
wine, and others have the water boiled. We requested 
our hotel people to have care in getting the water, and 
then boil it for us, and it was quite good and perfectly safe. 
Many who claim to 'touch nothing at home' take their 
wines and beer freely and with apparently good relish 
here. Each follows his own bent and no questions are 
asked 'for conscience' sake.' 

"We had our first view of Palestine early in the morn- 
ing. Mount Ilermon was sixty miles away, 11,000 feet 
above the sea and covered with snow. Soon Mount Carmel 
was in sight, then the Valley of Acre, then the towns of 
Acre Haifas and Cesarea. Tn the afternoon we landed 


and took carriages for Nazareth, eighteen miles away, 
where we arrived at night. 

"On the journey we drove for some hours alongside 
Mount Carmel. Just before dark we hit upon a spot 
called 'Herosheth of the Gentiles.' Here one can see on 
Mount Carmel, the place of sacrifice, where the contest 
took place between Elijah and the prophets of Baal, and 
the place of the killing of the latter on a hill below beside 
the River Kishon. 

"To the south lies the plain on which Barak of Israel 
overcame the hosts of Sisera, the Canaanite general. 
East of us lay the far-famed Valley of Jezreel, more com- 
monly called by the Greek name Esdraelon. Ear away 
across the valley we could see Little Hermon, the town 
of Jezreel, once the city of Ahab and Jezebel, and the 
sights of Nam, Endor and Shunem. On this spot we 
rested our team and ate a lunch. I took occasion to read 
the Scripture bearing on the events noted. 

"My great teacher, the late Dr. John A. Broaddus, 
advised me two years ago if I ever came to Nazareth not 
to fail to get the view from the highest point above 
Nazareth. So to-day I ventured up to this point to have, 
perhaps in many respects, the greatest view from any one 
point in the world. Here we could see clearly for fifty 
miles in each direction, giving in a circle a radius of 100 

"To the east was Mount Tabor, the Mount of Trans- 
figuration, many believe ; south of east and beyond the 
Jordan we saw the Mount of Moab; southeast we saw 
Little Hermon, Heights of Gilboa, Plains of Esdraelon, 
and beyond these the mountains of Samaria; to the west 
was Mount Carmel and the Mediterranean Sea, with our 
steamer in full view; north we saw snow-capped Hermon 
and the mountains of Lebanon. The depression of the 


Jordan Valley and Sea of Galilee were in sight, though 
the water we could not see ; we could see far bevond the 

"Never before could I appreciate so fully some of the 
maps which I have seen representing the topography of 
this ancient land. What views our Lord Himself must 
have had as a, boy and young man from this very spot. 
We hated to leave the place. 

"Mounted on Arabian steeds, a party of us set out for 
Tiberias and the Sea of Galilee at 6 A. M. yesterday. 
My good friend and typical Southern gentleman, Col. 
C. C. Sanders, of Gainesville, Ga., decided to go, too, 
but he would not ride on horseback. He had arranged 
before leaving home for a palanquin to be carried by two 

"Seated in his Arabian chariot, the Colonel set out 
in advance of those on houses. When he reached the 
top of the hill, the mule in front, whose business end was 
toward the Colonel, opened up a siege on the palanquin. 
The vehicle fell under the rapid fire and the Colonel fell 
with it. 

"By this time the aft mule, whose head had been toward 
the Colonel, broke loose, changed his position and opened 
fire from the rear, while his mate kept up a steady fire in 
front. The Colonel, who was a gallant Confederate 
officer and fought in forty battles, hastily beat a retreat, 
neither to the front nor to the rear, but to one side, and 
came off, strange to say, without a wound, except in his 

"The palanquin was demolished and left by the road- 
side. As the Colonel looked on the scene in disappoint- 
ment and grief, the driver of the warrior-like mules asked 
him, in the best English at his command, what he wanted 
to do. The Colonel said he would like to go to the Mount 


of Precipitation, where Jesus stood after His humiliation 
at the hands of His brethren and townsmen. 

"About this time the party came upon the scene, so 
Colonel Sanders was given a seat in an emergency carriage, 
and made the trip the jolliest, happiest man in the bunch, 
many times laughing himself into tears as he told of the 
scene of his downfall. 

From Caifa to Nazareth. 

"In making the journey from Caifa to Nazareth and 
Tiberias, one makes the curve of a crescent, with the 
first and last forming the points. The distance is forty 
miles, with Nazareth in the center. Some miles before 
reaching Tiberias, you come to the Mount of Beatitudes, 
where the Sermon on the Mount was preached. From 
there one sees Mount Tabor to the south, Mount Hermon 
to the north, the Sea of Galilee and the valley in which 
the last great battle between the Crusaders and Turks 
was fought. Over against the Mount of Beatitudes is 
another mountain with a city on its top. How forcibly 
the words of our Lord, 'A city set on a hill cannot be hid,' 
came to me. 

"We reached Tiberias at noon and had a lunch at the 
Hotel Tiberias. This is a city of some 5,000 people, 
Syrians and Jews chiefly. Great poverty and ignorance 
prevail here. In the afternoon we sailed on the Sea of 
Galilee and visited the ruins of Magdala, the home of 
Mary Magdalene ; Bethsaida, the home of Peter, Andrew 
and Philip, and Capernaum, the home of our Lord after 
His departure from Nazareth. 

"The afternoon on this famous sea was very delightful 
and full of sacred memories. On our going out the sea 
was as glass. The boatmen had to row us. As in a 
moment there was a breeze, then a heavy wind and almost 


a storm, until many in the boat feared and some were 
seasick. The Lord seems to have given us just the after- 
noon. We had a sail of twenty-five miles and the last 
half of it was an exciting race. After a night's rest we 
left in the early morning and arrived here at noon. I 
put one steed out of business yesterday, and to-day I 
asked for one strong and spirited. They gave me a fine 
fellow that one gentleman had given up as unmanageable. 
I handled him with ease, and was the first to reach our 
hotel to-day. 

"We are in a land of one word, and that word is 
'backsheesh.' You hear it everywhere and always. The 
beggars use it, the children use it, the guides use it, the 
women use it. When they see the American or European 
coming, the people meet to say 'backsheesh.' This means 
'tip me' or 'give me something.' Our horsemen say it 
when they help you mount and when they help you 
dismount. One of our party dropped his cap and a little 
girl was standing near. The guide called to the girl to 
hand the gentleman his cap. She said, 'Let him give 
me backsheesh first.' Our boatmen would stop rowing 
and sailing to ask us for 'backsheesh.' 

"This has become so common that it has got into the 
story of our Lord's walking on the water. It is said that 
after He had sent His apostles away, He engaged a man 
to take Him across the sea and the fellow would say 
'backsheesh' until the Lord got tired of him and got out 
and walked rather than ride with such a man. I do not 
vouch for the truth of this story, but I do declare that 
if the minds and hearts of the people were as open to 
truth and light as their hands are open to receive 'back- 
sheesh' they would soon be saved — a nation could be born 
in a day. 

"This is a land where the women, donkeys, camels and 


children bear the burdens. The women wear bloomers 
and the men wear skirts. These people are a cowed 
people, poor and oppressed. The Turk is a blight on the 
world. His government is a disgrace to civilization and 
decency. The people are taxed 33 per cent, of all they 
can produce. There is nothing to encourage enterprise 
or the importation of capital. 

"An English gentleman bought a piece of ground on 
one of Nazareth's highest hills and built a nice house for 
a residence, and then the government would not let him 
live in it, but bought it from him, lest he might want to 
put a fort there for Great Britain. 

"Before leaving our ship we were asked to select room- 
mates for our stay in Galilee and Samaria. I had gotten 
well acquainted with a gentleman from Kentucky of the 
name of Ham, so I said 'Give me Ham.' The manager 
said, 'Why Ham?' I replied, 'This is one time I prefer 
Ham to the whole hog.' My selection did not prove a 
bad one by any means. 

"I should have said that a few miles from Nazareth, 
on the way to Tiberias, we visited Cana, where Jesus 
performed His first miracle, making water wine. It is 
a small village. We visited a Latin Catholic Church, 
under which they showed us the well from which the 
servants drew the water that was made wine. Some of 
our party were amazed and full of holy wonder. 

"Just across the street we visited a Greek Catholic 
Church, which, they assured us, was over the spot where 
Jesus made water wine. They did not have the well 
from which the water was drawn, but they had the pots 
that contained the water which became wine. And there 
were the pots before us. And there was more wondering. 
How could there be two exact spots for the same event? 
Let some wise head answer. 



' After all, I rejoice in that saying in the Scriptures, 
'The Lord preserveth the simple/ 

"We now depart on a journey of sixty miles through 
Samaria to Jerusalem, the city of our God. With greet- 
ing to all, John D. Jordan. 

Through the Famed Valley of Esdraelon. 

"From Nazareth to Jerusalem, March 13th. — March 
10th we started south for Jerusalem, a distance of ninety 
miles, as we had to ride it, visiting the places of interest 
along the way. We passed down a steep, rough and 
winding way into the Valley of Esdraelon. From the 
mountain top before descending the whole valley looked 
like a vast lake. A heavy fog spread like a great carpet 
over the entire country. We were here reminded of the 
mirage of the desert that so often brings hope to the weary 
traveler. Soon we were r in fog and could not see 100 
yards in any direction. The fog settled and we continued 
our journey under a sky without mist or cloud. 

"Our first traveling in the Esdraelon was with great 
difficulty on account of the mud. Colonel Sanders' palan- 
quin had been repaired and he started for Jerusalem in 
his Oriental chariot. Soon his mules stuck in the mud 
and one fell broadside. The Colonel was discouraged, 
and abandoned all hope of ever seeing the ancient city 
of the Kinff, unless he could obtain other means of trans- 
portation. He was given a good horse and proved one 
of the finest riders in the company of thirty-five, besides 
guides and muleteers. 

"On entering the valley, we had Mount Tabor in full 
view on our left. This is claimed by many to be the 
mount on which our Lord was transfigured. It is indeed 
a great 'mountain apart.' In front of us and to the left 
lay Little Hermon Mountain. A few miles away, and 


on Little Hermon's northside, we could see the city of 
l^ain, where our Lord raised to life again the dead son 
of a widow. The town is now called Eein. Farther 
east, and near the northern end of Little Hermon, we 
could see the site of ancient Endor, where Saul went to 
consult with the old witch. 

"Bearing gently on the western end of the mountain, 
we passed around to the southwest and hit upon Shunem, 
where Elisha had his chamber in the home of the Shunam- 
mite family, and where he restored to life the Shunammite 
child after it was dead, or resuscitated it after a deep 
swoon from a sunstroke. We had quite a discussion 
between two preachers just here as to whether the boy 
was really dead or in a state of coma. 

"Shunem is now a dirty, modern village, called Solam. 
There is no place in it that would prove an inviting 
chamber to a prophet. Here David's nurse was born, 
and here the Philistines were formed in battle array 
against King Saul, just before his great defeat and tragic- 

"A little farther to the south are the hills of Gilboa, 
where the Israelites were encamped to fight their foe. 
In full view were the grounds where the battle was fought 
and where Saul and his son, Jonathan, died. In the 
distance we could see the town Bethshan, to which the 
bodies of Saul and Jonathan were taken and fastened 
on the city's wall till brave Israelites went and took them 
down and cremated them. 

"About an hour and a half after passing Shunem we 
came to Jezreel, the summer home of Ahab and Jezebel. 
One would never judge it to have been a royal city of 
great wealth. Here Jezebel, the woman who did more 
to hurt Israel than other woman, was thrown from her 
mansion and killed. There was no crime of which she 

• 9 '•' ».••>.. '.<■•.■ "<_,■■», ,.;..<!-,■' ■•i I .,W'V , 1 , 'MV" ' 


was not capable or at which she would hesitate if it lay 
in the way of her purpose. Here we were in the path 
where Jehu did his fast driving to avenge Israel of the 
defeats that brought on the death of Ahab. 

"At Jezreel we had our first outdoor lunch and it was 
a good one and greatly enjoyed by a hungry party. The 
natives swarmed around us like the people of Savannah 
swarm to the street parade of a circus. They seemed 
anxious to have some token as a souvenir of our having 
passed their way. They would take anything, dead or 
alive, cold or hot, and the larger the better they like it. 
They preferred money, and their first choice was not the 
penny. They are Mohammedans, poor, dirty, ignorant 
and oppressed. 

"After lunch, and while our horses rested, we walked 
to the eastern side of the town, where we could see 
Gideon's fountain — a great spring coming from the ground 
and forming the head waters of a small river that flows 
east into the Jordan. It was at this stream Gideon tested 
his men as to whether they would stoop to drink, having 
laid aside their arms, or whether they would hold their 
arms in one hand, dip water with the other and drink 
from it, keeping a sharp eye out for the enemy all the 
while — a thing that those who stooped down to drink 
could not do. 

"These vigilant fellows were the chosen of God to win 
a great victory. Let it not be forgotten in this connec- 
tion that the proper translation of the Scripures makes 
it quite clear that the spirit of Jehovah clothed Himself 
with Gideon to win this fight. In other words, the spirit 
of Jehovah put on Gideon as a military garment and 
fought through him. 

"At mid-afternon we arrived at Jenin, the Scriptural 
Enganim, at the southern edge of the Valley of Esdraelon. 


It is a modern village of dirty huts and dirty people. We 
stopped here over Sunday. There is a modern hotel in 
Jenin, owned and managed by the Hamburg- American 
Line of steamers. We rested, had service and wrote to 
our homes. At night our dragoman, Shukreg Hichmeh, 
took a party to an Arabic coffee house. It was interesting 
as he interpreted for us. These Mohammedans are 
polygamists. It was amusing, and sad, too, to hear them 
tell why they had more than one wife. One old fellow 
brought down the house when asked how many v wives he 
had, by replying, 'I am sorry to say I have one. I had 
rather have none. 7 

Pit in Which Joseph Was Thrown. 

"Monday we were off on our way and in a few hours 
came to the ruins of Dothan and saw the 'dry pit' into 
which Joseph's brethren are said to have put him before 
selling him to the caravan bound for Egypt. The pit 
was full of water. I waited to hear the remarks that 
must needs come. I did not have to wait long. Our 
dragoman was pounced upon for showing us a pit full of 
water for a 'dry pit.' The enthusiastic and exact theo- 
logian had forgotten that this is the wet season, and that 
many places now full of water will be dry in a few 
months. I ventured the suggestion and all was well. 

"While we were by the pit we saw a large caravan of 
traders come around a hill on the main road that leads 
to Egypt. We recalled the Scriptural narrative, and 
how impressive it was to remember that such a sight in 
the distance suggested to Joseph's brethren the idea of 
selling him into slavery rather than leaving him to die in 
the pit. 

"Our journey for some time made it clear why Joseph's 
brethren left the unfertile and drier country of Shechem 


and went to the rich and well-watered plain of Dothan. 
Such scenes and events make the wisdom and force of 
the Scriptural narrative throb with life. 

"We soon came upon the hill of Samaria, a magnificent 
hill, rising terrace upon terrace with all the comeliness 
and beauty of nature and art combined. It stands 500 
feet above the valley surrounding it on all sides, and is 
itself surrounded in the distance by other mountains. A 
more splendid position for a city would be hard to find. 

"On the top of the hill Ahab and Jezebel had their 
'Ivory Palace 7 and lived in the greatest pomp of royal 
estate. Here also Herod had his magnificent palace and 
theatre. We saw the barley and beans growing, and the 
farmers ploughing amid the very foundation of all these 
great buildings. One hundred great marble columns 
stand as nude and forlorn reminders of a glory departed. 
Many others have been thrown down and built into parts 
of a crude fence. r 

"All over this hill and among the great marble pillars 
could be seen half-nude natives working the soil in the 
crudest way. Down on the hillside is a rude little village 
of dirt houses, without a single article or inviting feature. 
Ahab and Herod would hardly know the site of their 
ancient glory. It was their wickedness that has brought 
this once magnificent place to naught. As we read the 
Bible we were impressed with the force of prophecy. All 
regretted to leave the Hill of Samaria, so beautiful in 
situation, graceful in form and queenly in its bearing. 

"In the afternoon we galloped into Nablus, the ancient 
Shechem, which lies between Mounts Ebal and Gerizim 
on the edge of the latter. Our party went at once to the 
Samaritan Synagogue, built 700 years ago. It is an 
humble building, crowded into a dark corner, with no 
light except from the roof and the door. We were shown 


copies of the Pentateuch, one said to be 2,000 years old 
and the other 3,575 years old. I thought these rather 
striking dates, but held my peace. We met the Samaritan 
high priest, ' Jacob, son of Aaron.' He is an elderly man 
with a pleasing manner and kindly face. He reminded 
me strikingly of the late Dr. Isaac P. Mendes, of 

"There are only 195 Samaritans now. There are more 
men than women and they cannot marry outside their 
people. No woman can have more than one husband, so 
there are several men on the waiting list. They are a 
poor, industrious, pious people. We took up a collection 
for the high priest and were thanked. 

"A few of our party ventured to walk to the top of 
Mount Gerizim and to the place of sacrifice. It was an 
undertaking which many attempted and failed, stopping 
by the way or returning. Here the Samaritans observe 
every year the feast of a passover, killing seven lambs, 
according to the seven families now of the Samaritans. 
For nearly 2,000 years, or since the destruction of Jeru- 
salem, A. D. 70, this is the only place in all the world 
where the paschal lamb has been regularly slain. I looked 
on the place where they are slain and cooked. 

"The next day found us early on the road, passing 
between Mounts Gerizim and Ebal to "Jacob's Well." 
This is one of the well-known and well-authenticated 
spots of sacred history. Here it was that our Lord, 
wearied with His journey, sat on the well and talked with 
the Samaritan woman. To enjoy it read the fourth 
chapter of the fourth Gospel. 

"After leaving the well, we passed near Aphek, where 
Eleazer and Phinehas, sons of Levi, are sa^d to be buried, 
and came to Levonah. Here we met one hundred Russian 
pilgrims making a tour of the country on foot. They are 
a worse looking people than the natives. 


"Soon we were at the ruins of Shiloh, and, in fact, all 
is ruin. Only one tree and one wall remain on the site 
of the ancient city of power and greatness. Here again 
prophecy has been fulfilled. We lunched on the main 
carriage road from Nabher to Jerusalem and visited the 
ruins of Bethel. Here we passed over the roughest roads 
and through the most barren country yet traversed. No 
wonder Jacob had unrest after traveling over this country. 

"Here, ten miles away, we saw for the first time, and 
very distinctly, the city of Jerusalem and the Mount of 
Olives. Standing on the ruins of Bethel and looking at 
Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives gave me emotions 
beyond description. 

"We turn aside to the main road at Ramallah and 
spend the night at a good hotel, owned and managed by 
our dragoman, Shurkey Hishmeh. He showed us every 
kindness here, as elsewhere. 

"The next morning we looked from the front porch of 
the hotel toward the west and saw Mizpeh, where Saul 
was made King of Israel. Just below, on the hillside, 
is Emmaus, and a little to the north of Emmaus is Gibeon. 
From our hotel we could see Joppa, twenty-seven miles 
to the northwest. 

"We spent the forenoon visiting some mission schools 
in Ramallah. All persons opposed to foreign missions 
should see what these Protestant mission schools do for 
the communities in which they are located. The chief 
school here is a Quaker institution and has been in 
operation seventeen years. It has thirty-four girls 
and twenty-five boys. They sang for us several songs, 
including l America.' 

"At lunch Mr. Hishmeh had a lamb cooked whole, full 
of rice, and brought it on the table. All greatly enjoyed 
it, for it was good and signified the greatest hospitality. 


"In my next letter we will take in Jerusalem and 
Jericho, the Jordan and the Dead Sea and Bethlehem." 

Dr. F. D. Power's Narrative. 

Who could ever forget the ride to Nazareth on a 
bright, glad spring days ? Who can sleep his first night 
in Nazareth, whatever may be the comfort of his couch 
or the weariness of his frame ? Who can ride through 
these absorbing scenes and view the upland mountain- 
rimmed plain where nestles the city of our Lord's life 
for so many years and not be thrilled and silenced ? Who 
can walk the streets, narrow and dirty as they may be 
now, and thronged with children where He once played 
as a child, and mingle with the shepherds and craftsmen, 
vine dressers and tillers of the soil, of whom He in His 
young manhood was one, and climb the hill which gives 
the widest sweep of vision in all Palestine, which, no 
doubt, was one of His most frequented and most delightful 
resorts, and not feel nearer to Him and most supremely 
blessed ? 

There are a thousand things of interest in Nazareth. 
Besides the strange people and customs, the shops and 
bazaars and market places, the camels and donkeys, the 
caravansaries, such as our Lord was born in, and camel 
trains with which He no doubt somteimes journeyed, 
there are the Cave of Annunciation and the kitchen of 
Mary, the carpenter-shop of Joseph and stone slab on 
which He dined with His disciples, and the synagogue 
in which He stood up to read the Scriptures, and other 
supposed places associated with Him, all of which, how- 
ever doubtful, have a great fascination for the visitor. 
Two places there are we may be quite certain about — 
the fountain on the edge of the village, which has been 
from time immemorial the one unfailing source of water 


supply, and the ridge which rises 500 feet above it, 
known as Neber Said. The fountain is called the Vir- 
gin's Fountain, and is the center of the social life of 
Nazareth, where women and maidens gather for gossip, 
and fill their earthen pitchers, as they did, no doubt, in 
Mary's time. I took one of these pitchers, which the 
women balance so gracefully on their heads, resting on a 
little Jaffa cap, and lifted it to my shoulder and it must 
have weighed forty pounds. They carry them, apparently, 
with the greatest ease, and without touching them with 
their hands. The water is clear, and cold, and beautiful, 
and though they tell you never to drink the water of Pales- 
tine, we did so with perfect comfort and confidence. 

The other point of certainty is the hill top. Who can 
look from this eminence and not be moved ? To the north 
towers Hermon, snow-capped, 10,000 feet above the sea ; 
the mountains of Leban6n, the land of Zebulon and 
Naphtali. To the west the blue waters of the Mediter- 
nanean were visible, with our ship lying in the harbor, 
plainly seen with the naked eye, though twenty-three miles 
away, and Mount Carmel and the place of sacrifice, and 
the Valley of Kishon and beautiful Plain of Esdraelon. 
Eastward lay Mount Tabor and south Little Hermon and 
the mountains of Gilboa, Samaria and the plain of the 

A dozen famous villages are pointed out — Sepphoris, 
where Mary's mother was born ; ISTain, where Jesus raised 
the widow's son from the dead; Endor, where Saul had 
his experience with the witch ; Megiddo and Jezreel, 
where Ahab had his summer capita] and palace — his 
Versailles, the scene of revelry and tragedy, for here 
was Naboth's vineyard, and here Jezebel was eaten by dogs, 
and here the Israelites were defeated by the Philistines 
and Saul and Jonathan fell. We may hear David sing. 



I am distressed for thee, my brother Jonathan; very 
pleasant hast thou been unto me ; thy love to me was 
wonderful, passing the love of women. Saul and Jona- 
than were lovely and pleasant in their lives, and in their 
death they were not divided." 

We may look at Nain and hear the touching story: 
"Behold a dead man carried out, the only son of his 
mother and she a widow ! And when the Lord saw her, 
He had compassion on her and said unto her, weep not. 
And He came and touched the bier, and they that bare 
him stood still. And he said, Young man, I say unto 
thee, arise. And he that was dead sat up and began to 
speak. And he delivered him to his mother." 

We may look on the broad Plain of Esdraelon, famed 
for great armies, and see kings and conquerors passing 
over it, from Assyria and Babylon on the east and Egypt 
on the south, the Israelites coming down from the hill 
country and binding the Canaanites who dwelt "in the 
land of the valley" with their "chariots of iron" ; Barak, 
inspired by the song of Deborah, rushing down from the 
hills, and sweeping away the nine hundred iron chariots 
of Sisera ; the army of Sennacherib, when — 

"The Assyrian came down like the wolf on the fold, 
And his cohorts were gleaming with silver and gold, 
And the sheen of their spears was like stars on the sea, 
When the blue waves roll nightly on deep Galilee." 

Here Roman fought Crusader and Turk, and Napoleon 
was checked by the English when marching from Egypt 
by way of Jaffa seeking the conquest of Syria to march 
on Constantinople and "enter Europe by the back door," 
and here in the Apocalypse we are told is to be fought 
the last great battle of the world which is to precede 
universal peace — Armageddon — the battle of Megiddo, 
the ancient name of Esdraelon. 


Tabor, wooded and green, tells of the transfiguration; 
Carmel of Elisha and Elijah; Gilboa, rocky and barren, 
speaks of the beauty of Israel slain upon its high places; 
Ilermon, lordly and snow-crowned, pictures the eternity 
of God's promises and the calmness of God's peace. But 
at our feet lies Nazareth — Nazareth which testifies as to 
the Life — the Life that was lived there; the Life which 
is the Light of the world. 

This was the place. Here the Life began. Over these 
hills rambled the Holy Child. Down there at the Vir- 
gin's Fountain the mother came often leading Him by 
the hand. Nazareth was His home. "And He went 
down with them and came to Nazareth, and was subject 
unto them. And Jesus increased in wisdom and stature 
and in favor with God and man." The Jesus who is the 
way, the truth and the life was Jesus of Nazareth. 

Nazareth has little beauty. Not one of our Lord's 
people — not a Jew — is to" be found to-day in Nazareth. 
Christians are there. We were received warmly into a 
Christian home and saw their family life. Moslems are 
there. Greeks and Latins have their churches and con- 
tend for its sacred places. But there was lived the Life, 
and this makes it sacred. The houses are homely. Every 
one is a perfect cube — "the length and the breadth and 
the height of it are equal." They have as much variety 
as so many blocks of stone hewn out of a quarry and have 
no virtue but in their masonry. The people are not 
handsome nor cleanly, but mostly poor and mean. They 
pester you. The smallest children cry "Backsheesh ! 
backsheesh !" until you fairly run wild because of their 
importunities. But there was lived the Life. It is the 
cradle of our religion. It was the home of its founder. 
It has witnessed the beginning; of a great historv. In 
1lie Himalayas there is a stream which flows forth from 


under a glacier. It may be no more than others which 
issue from the region of eternal snow, but it is the source 
of the Ganges, a river which to hundreds of millions is 
like the river flowing out of the throne of God. So from 
this little mountain town of Galilee has gone forth the 
stream which is for the healing of the nations. 

"He always kept close to nature/' says Renan. It is 
easy to picture Jesus on this height, the marvelous boy, 
looking with great eyes upon the boundless plain below, 
beyond which lay Jerusalem and its great story for Him ; 
and off, far off, to the sea, which rolled from upon the 
horizon, emblem of immensity, infinity, eternity, beyond 
which lay the great world for which He was to suffer. 
And so in silence and communion with nature, and with 
His Father His soul grew to its immeasurable greatness. 
He must still love Nazareth — these hills, these poor people, 
these little children He must still care for tenderly. 
These that come from the ends of the earth to see the 
home of His childhood, and young manhood, because they 
honor Him — He must see them and feel kindly toward 

"What means this eager, anxious throng, 
Which moves with busy haste along; 
These wondrous gatherings day by day? 
What means this strange commotion, pray? 
In accents hushed the throng reply, 
Jesus of Nazareth passeth by." 


Jaffa, the Joppa of Scripture — Queer Antics of Oarsmen in the 
Harbor — History of the Town — Our Author Speculates About 
Noah's Ark — The Orient the Cradle of Some of Civilization's 
Bad Features — An "Obiter Dictum" on Trusts — Rose-Bedecked 
Hills — Bkron — First Sight of Jerusalem — As to the Site of 
Calvary — Supposed Tomb of Jesus — Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre — Mount Olivet and its Associations — Two Competing 

From Caifa our good ship steamed to Jaffa, the Joppa 
of the Bible. The harbor is a poor one and we had to 
land in small boats. When the sea is rough it is some- 
times two or three days before a landing can be effected, 
as it is a rockbound coast. Here Hiram, King of Tyre, 
brought the cedars of Lebanon for the building of the 

We found five ships and many small craft in the harbor. 
The oarsmen, like those at Caifa, go barefooted and pull 
their oars standing, seating themselves to recover, then 
rising and pulling again, and singing to the dip of the oar. 
The sea breaks over the rocks in great waves and travelers 
have to pass between immense boulders, a feat which these 
boatmen perform with the skill of experience. 

It was from Jaffa that Jonah sailed on his whaling 
expedition. This was also the city of Simon, the tanner, 
whose house we visited. Upon the top of this structure 
Peter had the vision related in the tenth chapter of Acts. 
Here, too, Dorcas was restored to life by Peter. But 
judging from the raggedness of the children, she at present 
has no followers in the making of "coats and garments, " 
which rendered her so dear to the widows, who stood by 
weeping in the upper chamber. 


This ancient city was the base from which Godfrey de 
Bouillon, the famous Templar, the paladin of the East, 
operated during the first Crusade, in the capture of Jeru- 
salem. The city was captured and destroyed by Saladin, 
the celebrated Sultan of Egypt and Syria, in A. D. 1188, 
but was rebuilt by Richard, the lion-hearted. It has 
always been noted for the manufacture of soap, but this 
product is doubtless exported, as there is no evidence from 
external appearances that much of the article is used by 
the inhabitants — certainly the children are not liberal 
patrons of this great civilizer. 

Joppa's oranges are fine and its gardens and citron 
groves are fragrant and fertile. Tradition says this is 
the spot where the old patriarch, Noah, dwelt, and that 
here he built and launched on the troubled waters of the 
great deluge that ark which served to preserve the human 
race during the great inundation. 

It is not stated in Holy Writ how long Mr. ISToah was 
employed in his enterprise, but as the ark was as large as 
a modern man of war, being 525 feet long, 87 feet in 
breadth and 52 feet in height, it was quite a big under- 
taking, and probably consumed several years in the 

During this period one can well imagine the ridicule 
and derision the old man endured — the gibes and jests 
uttered at his expense. I doubt not that his neighbors, 
being unbelievers, regarded him as crazy. So entirely 
absorbed were they in mundane affairs, and so contin- 
uously did they indulge in all manner of wickedness that 
we are told "It repented the Lord that he had made man 
on the earth, and it grieved Him at his heart." 

These frivolous sinners saw no indications of an over- 
flow of the waters or any danger that the fountains of the 
great deep would be broken up. The rocks in the harbor 


were so dangerous, and the distance from the shipyard 
and deep water so great, that they believed it would be 
impossible to launch successfully, in the ordinary way, 
so great a craft. And as poor old Noah's fellow-citizens 
did not credit his predictions of the coming deluge, they 
ceased to interest themselves in his work, and in all likeli- 
hood regarded his story as a standing joke. 

As time wore on they probably stopped asking him how 
he was getting on with his boat, when he looked for the 
flood of waters that was to float it and on what date he 
expected the windows of Heaven to be opened. The boys, 
after the manner of their kind, in going and returning 
from school, doubtless invited him, in sarcastic tones or 
jocular vein, to "come out of that ark." And probably 
the urchins asked him a thousand times when the deluge 
would arrive, and why he did not put on his gum boots 
and raincoat, and raise his umbrella and "come in out of 
the wet." 

But the old man knew what he was about — he was in 
communion with his God and had faith in His promises. 

The inhabitants of the doomed city were not only 
irreverent, but so wicked that they paid not the slightest 
attention to Noah's warnings and admonitions. This is 
evident from the fact that God regarded only Noah and 
his immediate family as being sufficiently righteous to 
be worthy of preservation. 

But there came a day, after Noah's work had been 
completed, when a strange and panoramic scene presented 

itself one that excited the wonder and curiosity of the 

people of this ancient city. An ordinary circus always 
arouses the interest not only of children, but of adults, 
yet there was never, before or since, congregated so com- 
plete an array of quadrupeds and birds and reptiles and 
insects as this venerable man got together, for we are told 


that under his supervision was "every beast after his 
kind, and all the cattle of their kind, and every creeping 
thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind, and 
every fowl after his kind, every bird of every sort." 

We can imagine this huge procession headed by the 
stately elephant with solemn steps and slow; next comes 
"the old ship of the desert," with his swinging but steady 
gait; then the lordly lion, not rampant or couchant, but 
walking quietly and sedately with lowered brush, his 
fearful roar hushed into quiet and his savage, baleful eye 
with its lambent fires in repose. Now we see the feline 
race — the spotted leopard, the magnificent tiger and the 
mild-mannered and usually gentle grimalkin, not snarling, 
growling and biting, as is their wont, but typical of the 
state foretold by Isaiah, when "the wolf also shall dwell 
with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid, 
and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together, 
and a little child shall lead them." 

Then comes the gawky giraffe with his head in the 
clouds and by his side waddles the short-legged hippopota- 
mus, doing his best to keep up with his long-limbed com- 
panion; the wild ass of the desert and the farm horse 
amble along side by side ; the wild boar of the jungle and 
the house pig grunt in happy unison; the bison of the 
plains and the pet cow trot along in confidence together. 

Without attempting to name the animals, suffice it to 
say that the organization of the first menagerie was a 
complete and triumphant success — neither P. T. Barnum 
nor John Robinson has ever been able to rival Noah's 
menagerie and circus. 

Whilst these animals are walking quietly into the ark 
and taking their allotted places — the clean and the unclean, 
each after its own kind — there approach more slowly the 
creeping kind — the snakes and the lizards, the terrapins 


and the turtles, the caterpillars and the ants, the earwigs 
and the snails, the earthworms and the fireflies, the 
ubiquitous fleas and the comparatively motionless slugs. 
Then we hear a buzzing of bees and wasps, hornets and 
yellow jackets, and of flies of all sizes and species, from 
the tiny gnat to the blood-sucking gadfly. And as Noah 
journeys along the locusts sing their plaintive air, and the 
mosquitoes emit their friendly notes of attachment. 

It must have been a wonderful, yet a terrifying, sight 
to behold this motley array — sworn enemies to one 
another — ambling, crawling or creeping along side by 
side, and, as it were, by instinct making for the same 
goal; in quiet and peace assembling at the same head- 
quarters or rendezvous. 

But, on the other hand, it must have been pleasing to 
note the concert of action in the same direction of wild 
and tame animals, the gentle and the vicious, the order 
and system observed, the storing of supplies, the transfer 
of household goods. 

And verily the unusual commotion and preparation of 
J^oah and his family were well calculated to excite 
interest and arouse not only the curiosity of the people 
of the city, but to awaken their fears and occasion their 
repentance. The indifference of these folks can only be 
accounted for upon the supposition that, like Ephriam of 
old, "they were joined to their idols" and God determined 
"to let them alone." 

While these things are going on the sky is darkened 
and the sun obscured by the flight of thousands of birds, 
all winging their course with eyes focused upon a certain 
point. They move in the same mysterious way that 
marks their annual pilgrimages through pathless space 
in obedience to some unknown law or instinct implanted 
in them bv an All-Wise Providence. 


As these birds are strung out for miles upon the distant 
horizon, like a ribbon stretched from pole to pole, their 
forms and plumage at first are an indistinguishable mass, 
but as they get nearer and their individual forms are 
silhouetted against the sky, it is observed that the van 
is led by the king of fowls, the noble and lordly eagle. 
His pinions are outstretched and his piercing eye is cen- 
tered upon the common goal. In his wake follows the 
huge condor and the fleet-winged albatross, the long-necked 
stork and the various species of the heron — white, purple, 
blue, green — with their long legs straight behind them. 
Then come the swans, ducks, geese and other wild fowl 
after their kind ; after them the various species of owl, 
winking and blinking in the bright sunlight; then the 
raven and the hawk family. The swift, the swallow and 
the martin likewise appear, as do Robin Redbreast and 
the bullfinch, the querulous parrot, the contentious jay, 
the sweet-voiced nightingale and the hooper with its wierd 
and melancholy cry. The gaudy lyrebird, the gorgeous 
hummingbird, the tiny titmouse, the merry little wren 
are also in evidence — in fact, all the fowls, by sevens, are 
embraced in this magnificent gathering — the first and the 
greatest aviary ever collected on earth, and one that would 
have delighted an ornithologist and been invaluable as 
a collection. 

As the birds settle with weary wings upon the top of 
the ark and preen their feathers into decency and order, 
preparatory to entering the window and being shut in for 
seven days before the threatened destruction comes, they 
present a wondrous sight. 

Never before since Adam "gave names to all cattle and 
to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field," 
has there been such an assemblage. 

And now they all are gathered in the mighty vessel, 


the window is shut and the door is barred, when suddenly 
the forked lightning rends the darkened sky and the 
detonations of peal after peal of reverbrating thunder 
shake the very heavens and make the earth quake with 
fear. Then it is that amidst the commotion of the 
heavens "all the fountains of the great deep are broken 
up and the windows of Heaven are opened" and the city 
of Joppa, with all its inhabitants except righteous Noah, 
perishes from the face of the earth ! 

This old country of the Bible, the Orient, which cradled 
civilization, which nurtured the arts and sciences, which 
gave birth to our religion and the most perfect code of 
morals, upon which the jurisprudence of all nations is 
founded, is a wonderful land, apropos of which "the 
preacher" has said, "There is no new thing under the 

In our Anfflo-Saxon conceit "we think we know it all." 
We imagine, too, that we have perplexities unheard of by 
the Orientals — problems, the solutions of which, are 
untried; polemics and questions in political economics 
undreamt of in their philosophy ; but it is because we have 
not studied these matters by the light of Biblical history. 

For instance, we think Socialism is a. new fad — an 
untried quantity in social polity — whereas, the first society 
of this character was founded by our Lord's Apostles 
themselves, when they "had all things in common" and 
"neither said any of them that ought of the things which 
he possessed was his own." Yes, the Apostles tried this 
experiment, but they found it did not work and, therefore, 
abandoned it. And the latter-day disciples of this theory 
will learn the same lesson in time. 

We also complain about the modern "trusts" and deride 
them as a product of our civilization and a result of our 
environments — the Standard Oil monopoly, the American 


Sugar octopus and the American Tobacco combine, with 
all their ramifications. But their destruction of indi- 
vidual initiative, their war against personal effort and 
their powerful and heartless machinations do not compare 
with the first gigantic "trust" instituted by Joseph, who 
has been designated "the only gentleman named in the 

This ancient trust was instituted, organized and per- 
fected in Egypt thousands of years ago, when Joseph, 
taking advantage of the necessities of the people, captured 
their money. And when their money failed he took their 
cattle, their horses, their flocks and their herds. Then, 
as the famine waxed sore and the second year's distress 
fell upon them- — when wives and children were crying for 
bread — he seized their lands. And when he held a title 
deed to their estates he took their bodies for bread and 
they became the servants of Pharaoh. 

The story is well worth reflecting upon. Unless our 
government takes some drastic step and enacts laws to 
curb American combines and trusts, like conditions will 
produce like results. 

On landing at Joppa we found the wharves filled with 
Syrians, Greeks, Turks, Arabs, negroes and other peoples, 
and with strings of camels laden with oranges, coffee and 
like things. This country is noted for the delicious flavor 
of its oranges. Baskets, apparently holding a peck, were 
offered for twenty-five cents. Several of us bought, but 
on investigation, we found that even these people were up 
to Yankee tricks, for the baskets had false bottoms, and 
instead of holding twenty or twenty-five oranges, only 
contained ten or fifteen, the rest of the measures being 
filled with paper. 

The country from Joppa to Jerusalem, the Holy City, 
for a part of the way is very fruitful, and oranges, olives, 


figs, wheat and barley may be seen in the fields. Along 
the hills grow white and red roses — the rose of Sharon — 
the narcissus, the carnation and other flowers, while in 
the meadows one sees the famous lily of the valley. 

The first town of importance after leaving Jaffa, or 
Joppa, is Lydda, which in olden times belonged to the 
tribe of Ephriam. This is the place where Peter healed 
Aeneas of palsy. Yonder is Ramleh, with its historic 
Crusaders' Tower 120 feet high. Here Samuel judged 
the people and the children of Israel asked for a King. 

We next came to an old Arab village, the Ekron of the 
Old Testament, where the Ark of God was taken by the 
Philistines. After this in importance is the Hill of 
Gezer, which was presented to Solomon by his father-in- 
law, Pharaoh, as the dowry of the latter' s daughter. The 
next place to the right contains the ruins of the ancient 
Bethshemesh, a city of the tribe of Judah. Here some 
of the inhabitants looked into the Ark of the Lord and 
He destroyed 50,000 of the common people and seventy 
of the principal men of the city, according to Samuel. 
About two miles away is Zorah, the birthplace of Samson. 
A little farther on is a gorge called Wady es Sarat. The 
house in which Samson and Delilah dwelt is pointed out 
and high up among the rocks is a grotto which is alluded 
to as the Strong Man's cave. Our attention was also called 
to the supposed spot where Samson turned loose the 300 
foxes with firebrands attached to their tails. These fire- 
brands, it will be remembered, consumed the corn of the 
Philistines. The field between two mountains, from 
which David got the stone with which he smote Goliath of 
Gath is likewise to be seen along this route, and at the 
next station the boys offer for sale slings, represented as 
fac similies of the one David used. We can well imagine 
the scene described in the Scriptures — 


"One struggle of might, and the giant of Gath, 
With a crash like the oak in the hurricane's path, 
And a clangor of arms, as of hosts in the fray, 
At the feet of the stripling of Ephratah lay." 

And as they witnessed the catastrophe — 

" — a shout like the roll of artillery rose, 
And the armies of Israel swept on their foes." 

The next place pointed out to us is the spot where 
Samson is alleged to have destroyed the Philistines with 
the jawbone of an ass. Philip's fountain, where he 
baptized the eunuch, is also shown ; in fact, every foot 
of the ground is historic and replete with Biblical associa- 
tions and sacred narratives. 

Passing many interesting points we enter a more deso- 
late region, barren of trees and with scanty herbage. 
The hills are covered with goats seeking a precarious 
living from the barren soil. Occasionally we come to 
small and verdant pastures dotted with flocks of sheep, 
which are attended by their shepherds as of old. 

We continue to wind along the Judean hills, there being 
a gradual rise in the ground until the city — the Holy 
City — bursts upon our view. No Christian's heart can 
fail to be stirred when first he beholds this place, hallowed, 
as it is, by a thousand sacred memories. As the pilgrim 
enters through the gates he exclaims with the Psalmist, 
only changing the tense of the verb, "My feet do stand 
within thy gates, Jerusalem." And his heart utters 
a prayer of thanks that he is permitted to walk within its 
holy precincts, while his soul is moved to its profoundest 
depths at the prospect before him. Doubtless also he 
recalls the lines — 

"Jerusalem! alas! alas! of old, 
Deaf to whate'er prophetic seers foretold, 
Assailing all, whom Heaven, in mercy sent, 
And murdering those that warned thee to repent. 


"How oft hath God, still gracious, striven to bring 
Thy devious brood beneath His sheltering wing." 

This is the city in which our Lord dwelt; He walked 
these streets ; here is the site of the temple in which He 
worshipped and taught and from whose gates He was 
taken to Calvary. Here on His entry the multitude "took 
branches of palm trees and went forth to meet Him and 
cried, 'Hosanna ! Blessed is the King that cometh in the 
name of the Lord.' And this same rabble in a few days 
cried, 'Crucify Him, crucify Him.' " 

Jerusalem has been destroyed by sixteen different seiges, 
and the city of the present is really the eighth built on 
the ruins of its seven predecessors. After its destruction 
by Titus it remained uninhabited for more than fifty 
years, not a single person dwelling within its boundaries. 
Its restoration after tips period as a Christian city was 
by Helena, the mother of Constantine. Jerusalem has 
been under Moslem dominion since 637 A. D. with the 
exception of the century of Crusader occupation. At 
present it has a population of about 60,000 — 40,000 Jews, 
13,000 Christians and 7,000 Moslems. Jerusalem has 
eleven gates, five of which are closed. The two main 
streets are David and Damascus, which traverse the city 
at right angles and mark the different quarters of the 
town. The thoroughfares are narrow and filthy; the 
houses all small and dilapidated, and the drainage the 
worst imaginable, for sanitation is unknown. 

Among the first places we visited was the Church of 
the Holy Sepulchre. Whether this is the true site or 
not is uncertain. It looks improbable that the same site 
should be both the Calvary and sepulchre of our Lord. 
When the fact is considered that the site of old Jerusalem 
is filled with the rubbish of centuries, and that to find 
the original foundations it is necessary to dig down over 


a hundred feet, it can readily be realized that it is mere 
conjecture as to the true locations. 

The present site is recognized because it was the seat of 
Hadrian's temple to Venus and the place indicated by 
the vision of Empress Helena. Whether it be the true 
site or not, we do not know. We do know, however, that 
somewhere within a certain area our Lord suffered death, 
was buried and rose again on the third day. 

As we looked upon the spot, which for fifteen centuries 
has been regarded by pilgrims as the most sacred in the 
world, and beheld believers prostrating themselves and 
kissing the marble slab under which they believe our 
Lord lies, we felt like exclaiming, as did the father of 
the son who had a dumb spirit, "Lord, I believe; help 
thou mine unbelief." 

No place on earth is so sacred and dear to the Christian 
as Calvary and no spot so hallowed by holy thoughts and 
associations as His sepulchre. My eyes, readily respond- 
ing to the flood tides of emotion that swept through my 
mind and touched the chords of my heart, like the wind 
breathing upon an ^Eolian harp, became suffused with 
tears. I bowed my head in adoration and prayer of 
thankfulness that I had been permitted with reverent soul 
to do homage to His beloved memory. 

After we have read that Joseph of Arimathaea took 
the body of our Lord "and laid it in his own tomb, which 
he had hewn out in the rock, and he rolled a great stone 
to the door of the sepulchre and departed," we naturally 
expect to find the same environments as those indicated 
by this description, and at first there comes a sense of 
disappointment — a doubt about the matter. The tomb 
chamber is entirely lined with marble and has no resem- 
blance whatsoever to a cave cut in a rock. There is no 
rock to be seen in this chamber. 


On the right as you enter there is a marble bench. 
This, we are told, is the tomb of Christ. It is about two 
feet high, six feet long and three feet wide, and covered 
by a marble slab with a deep groove or crack running 
across its center. Through this narrow opening we are 
told that the miraculous fire issues. There is nothing 
about the pictures presented to suggest the simplicity of 
the Gospel narrative. 

And yet, if this be the real spot, consecrated with His 
blood, embalmed in the hearts of His adherents and 
watered with the tears of His disciples, why should it 
not be beautified and adorned by the loving hands of His 
followers, even as we decorate and embellish the last 
resting places of those near and dear to us ? 

As I stood, as it were, beneath the shadow of the cross 
on which He suffered, I recalled the words — 

"Behold Him now 
Suspended on the cross! On His pale brow 
Hang the cold drops of death; through every limb 
The piercing torture rages; every nerve 
Stretched with excess of pain, trembles convulsed." 

And yet amidst this agony He speaks and 

"Wafts His last prayer to all approving Heaven; 
'Forgive them, for they know not what they do.' " 

Some condemn the display and decorations and the 
burning of lamps and incense at His tomb, contrasting 
these with the simplicity of His character, the humility 
of His nature and the modesty of His life. But do not 
these very objections increase the love and affection, the 
adoration and devotion to which He is entitled and which 
it is not only our privilege, but our duty, to render and 
emphasize ? 

The central point of interest in the city is the Church 


of the Holy Sepulchre, the alleged Calvary and the sup- 
posed site of our Lord's tomb, but there is no certainty 
as to the authencity of this statement. If my opinion be 
worth considering, I should say that latter-day surmises 
about the spot are incorrect. From the reading of the 
Scriptures one is induced to believe that the crucifixion 
took place outside of the city. The Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre is within the walls. It is possible, but not at 
all probable, that the tomb of Joseph of Arimathaea, 
"which he had hewn out in the rock," was situated at the 
place where executions ordinarily took place, for Joseph 
was "a rich man" and would hardly have selected such a 
location for "his own new tomb." 

St. John is the only one of the Apostles who suggests 
that "there was a garden where He was crucified ; and in 
the garden a new sepulchre, wherein was never a man 
vet laid." 

But be that as it may, the saddest reflection upon Chris- 
tianity is the fact that here Latin, Greek, Armenian, 
Syrian, Copt and Abyssinian has each his own particular 
shrine within the enclosure; all calling themselves Chris- 
tians, but ready to cut one another's throats, and requiring 
a Turkish guard to keep them from so doing. What a 
commentary upon our Lord's teachings ! 

As we cross the threshold of the church we notice that 
three marble columns flank the door on either side. One 
of them has a crack in it, and it is believed that from this 
rift, on Judgment Day, will leap forth the fire that is to 
destroy the world. The surface of this riven shaft is as 
sleek as glass from the kisses of the pilgrims. 

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is not so much a 
church as a sacred exposition building. Under the same 
roof or series of roofs, are a multitude of shrines, chapels, 
stairways and caves — in fact, all the sacred places and 
things mentioned in the Bible. 


About the first object that attracts our attention after 
entering the building is the Stone of Unction, on which, it 
is asserted, the body of Jesus was placed by Nicodemus 
to be anointed for burial. Before this stone is a painting 
and a row of gilded lamps. 

A few steps from this is the' spot designated as the 
place where the mother of Jesus stood while His body 
was being anointed. Nearby is another shrine, known 
as the "Chapel >of the Parted Raiment." This is sup- 
posed to indicate the exact spot where the garments of 
Jesus were disposed of by lot. Then come other chapels 
denoting, respectively, the places where Christ was 
crowned with thorns, where He was scourged, where He 
was nailed to the cross, where He appeared to Mary 
Magdalene after His resurrection and where the Roman 
centurion stood during the crucifixion. 

Then we are shown a stone bearing the impressions 
made by our Lord's wounded feet, after which we go down 
a stairway some five yards to see the place where the true 
cross was found, after it had been buried for three hundred 
years. It is said that in the same pit were found all 
three of the crosses, those upon which the two thieves 
were crucified, as well as that of our Lord. 

The good Empress Helena, under whose direction , these 
excaA^ations and discoveries were made, was puzzled to 
know which was the sacred one. To determine this they 
were taken to the bedside of a devout woman who was 
very ill. When she beheld the first cross she became 
demented ; when she saw the second she had terrible 
spasms, but when the third, which proved to be the true 
cross, was brought to her bedside she was completely 
restored to health. This was, therefore, declared to be 
the true cross. 

We regard the "invention of the cross" as a fraud on 



the credulity of the Christian, almost equal to the impos- 
ture called the miracle of the "holy fire/' to be witnessed 
at the Greek Easter in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre 
every year, when thousands rush madly over one another 
to light their torches by the flame of the Holy Ghost. 

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, as it stands to-day, 
is a comparatively modern structure. The original mag- 
nificent bascilica erected by Constantino in 335 A. D., 
was destroyed in 614 A. D. Two years after a group 
of buildings was erected by the Patriarch of Jerusalem. 
This was destroyed in 1010 A. D. When the Crusaders 
came to Palestine they found on the site a collection of 
small chapels which had been built in the year 1048. 
These chapels were incorported by them into a great 
cathedral, and new shrines added. In 1808 this cathedral 
was destroyed by fire. The present church, as it now 
stands, is the result of this restoration and reconstruction, 
which took place in 1810. 

In another part of the church is the Chapel of the 
Crucifixion, where is shown the very rock of Calvary. 
In this stone is the rent made by the earthquake that 
occurred when Christ was crucified. One can even look 
down into the very hole in which the cross was placed. 

The next place of interest is Adam's grave. What 
authority there is for supposing that Adam was buried 
here I cannot imagine. They seem to have overlooked 
in this "omnium gatherum sanctorum" the spot where 
grew the tree of knowledge; the place where the serpent 
deceived our first mother; the locality where Cain slew 
his brother Abel; the last resting place of Eve, and the 
spot upon which Noah's ark rested. 

We made our entry into the Holy City by the Jaffa 
Gate, which is near the center of the city on the west side, 
with the ancient Tower of David to the right. To the 



right is the Armenian quarter; on the left the Christian. 
The Mohammedan quarter lies to the north , and the 
Jewish to the south, near the temple area. 

In the middle of the Greek chapel a short marble pillar 
is fixed in the pavement. This is shown as the center of 
the earth, and is alleged to mark the precise spot from 
which was taken the earth that helped to form Adam. 

There are no electric or horse cars and no electric or 
gas lamps in the old sections of the city. Darkness 
envelopes the scene, and little can be perceived by night, 
even if there be a moon visible. The stores are pretty 
generally closed when night falls. 

While Jerusalem is not progressive, as compared with 
the present up-to-date cities, either of America or Europe, 
or even with Cairo, in "Darkest Africa," yet it is im- 
proving. In 1838, the estimated population was only 
11,000 ; now it has about 60,000. 

Modern Jerusalem, oiftside the old walls, has many 
beautiful buildings, good hotels, hospitals and schools. 
The great Jewish philanthropist, Montefiore, settled a 
colony of his own race in one hundred and fifty houses. 
About one thousand people occupy them, and these quarters 
are given to the occupants, rent free, so long as they lead 
decent and cleanly lives. 

Jerusalem is built upon Mount Zion and Mount Moriah, 
on either side of which are valleys replete with profane 
and sacred history. 

The Tyropean or Cheesemonger's Valley which, in the 
time of Christ, was spanned by a bridge, is now so filled 
with the debris of centuries as to have almost disappeared. 

The Valley of Hinnon, which lies to the west, is marked 
by very steep sides. It has formed a most admirable 
defense for the city, having literally been filled with the 
bodies of attacking beseigers. It is also known as the 


Valley of Gehenna, or "pleasant valley," a misleading 
name, as it was, in later times, used as a crematory for 
the refuse of the city. In this same valley is the spot 
called Tophet. At this place sacrifices to Baal were 

A considerable portion of the city is still surrounded 
by walls, battlements and towers, thirty or forty feet 
high. In one part of the wall is a projecting stone some 
twenty-five or thirty feet from the ground. This is to be 
the judgment seat of Mohammed on the Day of Judgment, 
according to Moslem tradition. On the momentous occa- 
sion in question all the people will be gathered in the 
valley below. From this point, it is believed, there will 
be erected a bridge across the valley to Mount Olivet — a 
bridge as narrow as the blade of a sword. To pass ovej; 
this structure will be the test of orthodoxy. None but 
the followers of the prophet are expected to meet the 
crucial test and land in safety on the other side. 

The Valley of Kedron, also called the Valley of 
Jehosaphat, lies east of the city. The rock-ribbed hills 
on both sides are filled with tombs. Amongst others, are 
pointed out those of Isaiah, Hezekiah, Zechariah, St. 
James, Joseph and Mary. The tomb of the Virgin is the 
most prominent, and its identity is established by another 
vision of the Empress Helena. (I fear the Empress was 
a visionary person.) A church was built over the place 
about the twelfth century. 

A conspicuous tomb is that of Absalom, which is still 
pelted, according to ancient usage, by the Jews, as an 
evidence of their contempt for an unfilial son. 

Of all the hills that encompass Jerusalem the Mount 
of Olives is the most interesting and the most sacred. 
The dear old name warms every Christian heart. It is 
thoroughly enshrined in true, pure, religious sentiment. 



In the times of the patriarchs Jehovah was worshipped 
here. It was here also that King David fled from his 
ungrateful son, Absalom, when the latter attempted to 
supplant him. But it is the Mount of Olives' association 
with Christ that makes it sacred to the Christian. Here 
it was He spent whole nights in prayer. From this holy 
spot He made His ascension. At this place 

"Majestical He arose — 
Upborne, and steered a flight of gentlest wing 
His native Heaven to gain; whilst from their eye, 
That to its center fixed, in mute survey 
Pursued the ascending glory, a bright cloud, 
Of bidden access, his latest presence caught: 
By angel forms supported, who in song, 
Not unperceived, and choral symphony, 
Through Heaven's wide empyrean loud rejoiced." 

In full view from the summit of the Mount of Olives 
are many places closely identified with Christ's life. 
Below us lie Mount Moriah and Mount Zion. We stand 
on the spot designated as the place where He stood, when, 
with tear-bedimmed eyes, our Lord looked out upon Jeru- 
salem and uttered that most pathetic of lamentations — 
"O, Jerusalem,. Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, 
and stonest them that are sent unto thee ; how oft would 
I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen 
gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would 
not." Here He was wont to retire at evening for rest 
and devotion after the trying ordeals of the day; here 
he went early to offer up His morning prayers; here He 
met with His disciples, instructed them and communed 
with them; here He delivered His parables and foretold 
the destruction of Jerusalem. 

The view from the Mount of Olives is not only interest- 
ing, but far-reaching. We see hills and valleys that are 
all intimately associated with sacred history. To the 


east we get a glimpse of the Dead Sea, nearly 4,000 feet 
below, as well as of the Jordan winding its way along the 
valley, whilst in the background are the mountains of 
Moab, which bring to mind the beautiful story of Ruth 
and Naomi. On yon historic peak stood Moses, "and the 
Lord shewed him all the land of Gilead * * * and the 
plain of the Valley of Jericho, the city of palm trees 
unto Zoar." And the Lord said unto him, "I have caused 
thee to see it with thine eyes, but thou shalt not go over 
thither." And the great law-giver of the Israelites 
breathed his last on this desolate mountain with the 
promised land in full view — the then beautiful and fertile 
valley of the Jordan inviting and smiling enchantingly 
before him in all its verdant beauty. 

"God made his grave, to men unknown, 
Where Moab's rocks a vale unfold; 
And laid the aged seer alone, 

To slumber while the world grows old." 

To the north are the rugged mountains of Benjamin, 
and to the south the wilderness of Judea, in which our 
Lord spent "His fast of forty days, after which He was 
an hungred." This is the most desolate region in all 
Palestine; not a blade of grass, it is said, grows upon 
the hills and not a living sound is to be heard or seen 
throughout all their extent. It was, therefore, a physical 
necessity that the angels should minister to our Lord when 
he dwelt in this barren wilderness. 

The Russian Tower that crowns the summit of Olivet 
is quite an impressive structure, the best of all the views 
above referred to may be obtained from it. 

The Greek Church, not to be outdone by the Russian, 
has rather marred the summit with chapels, shrines and 
official residences, while the Latin Church, not to be sur- 
passed by either, has erected a paternoster chapel, upon 


whose walls the Lord's Prayer is inscribed in thirty-two 
different languages. 

In the church over the alleged place of the ascension 
an impression in the rock is shown as a footprint made 
by our Lord just before His final departure from this 

The Mount of Offence, where Solomon in his degeneracy 
built an altar for the worship of Moloch, is also visible 
from Olivet. 

The Hill of Evil Council is opposite Mount Zion. It 
is so named from the tradition that Caiphas, who resided 
here, made the agreement with Judas to betray Christ 
into His enemies' hands. The Aceldama, or Field of 
Blood, bought with the thirty pieces of silver — the price 
of Christ's betrayal — is on the other side of the Brook 

A chamber excavated in the rock is still the charnel 
house of the poor of Jerusalem. It is stated that the 
earth of this field will in forty-eight hours consume the 
flesh from the bones committed to it. 

We were also shown the so-called Judas tree upon 
which, it is alleged, the traitor hanged himself. 


Mosque of Omar Occupies Site of Solomon's Temple — "The New 
Calvary" and its Authenticity — Persistent Cry "Backsheesh" 
Heard Even in Sacred Places — Disputed Points About the 
Garden of Gethsemane — Jews Bewailing the Desolation of 
Israel — Via Dolorosa — John Doorsy and His Wee Son, "Jorge" 
— Semi-Domesticated Ravens— A City That was Accursed — 
River Jordan — Desolate Dead Sea Neighborhood — Bethany — A 
Glimpse of the Mount of Temptation — Birthplace of Jesus. 

Whatever doubts may exist about the other sites of 
Jerusalem there is no cavil or question that the Mosque 
of Omar, or as it is called, the Dome of the Rock, stands 
where the magnificent Temple of Solomon once stood, and 
where afterwards the Temple of Herod was erected. This 
is also said to be the spot where Abraham attempted to 
offer up Isaac as a sacrifice. 

The temple area is venerated alike by Jew, Moslem and 
Christian. It is truly the greatest of all "holy places." 
The enclosure contains about thirty-six acres; about one- 
sixth of this space is inside the city walls. 

Owing to the words of our Lord — "there shall not be 
left one stone upon another that shall not be thrown 
down" — it is generally believed that even the foundation 
stones of the temple and the city walls were removed; 
but those who have viewed, measured and examined the 
locality are of the opinion that the original walls of the 
temple and some portion of the ancient city walls still 
remain. The anathema of our Lord was doubtless 
intended to apply figuratively, not literally, to the super- 
structures and the buildings. 

So far as one can see, there are ten or twelve courses 


of stone nearly opposite the Mosque El Aksa, about thirty 
feet high, and constituting part of the original foundation 
walls, which have been cleared of the debris of centuries ; 
near the foot of this part of the wall is the place where the 
Jews assemble for prayer. They regard it as holy ground. 

Under ground there is an immense cathedral called the 
"Stables of Solomon." It is supposed to be an ancient 
granary or storehouse, but was used as a stable by the 
Crusaders. We found it a cold and cheerless place, 
inhabited only by the pigeons, which are permitted to 
occupy it unmolested. 

The Mosque El Aksa is the largest individual structure 
in Jerusalem, being 272 by 184 feet. At one time it was 
a Christian Church. Jn I. he mosque are some ancient 
marble pillars from the Temple of Herod and a beautiful 
carved wood pulpit. 

The Mosque of Omar,, or the "Dome of the Rock/ 7 is 
considered the finest building in Asia. It is octagonal 
in shape, each side being sixty-six and one-half feet wide, 
and fairly glistens with richly colored marbles and tiles. 
Its dome is of such exquisite proportions that it is 
regarded as a model of symmetrical art. The Mosque of 
Omar was built by the Moslems before the Crusaders, but 
was enlarged by the latter. It was completed, as it now 
is, in 1561 by Sulieman, the Magnificent. The interior 
is richly decorated with marble pillars of various colors, 
marble mosaics and tasteful decorations. There are also 
some beautiful stained-glass windows, which date back to 
1528. The dome is 115 feet high and gracefully propor- 
tioned. Marble floors, covered with magnificent rugs, 
blend harmoniously with the splendid windows. The 
chief feature is the rock itself, which is directly under 
the dome and marks the site of the great altar of burnt 
offering. It is fifty-seven feet long by forty-three wide. 


A high iron railing guards it and no one is permitted to 
trespass upon its sacred precincts. 

The Moslems believe that Mohammed made his last 
prayer on this rock, and that when he ascended to Heaven 
the rock started to follow him, but was kept back by the 
Angel Gabriel. In proof of this the finger marks may 
still be seen. Another Moslem superstition is that Moham- 
med drove into the rock certain nails, which are gradually 
to work through the stone and fall into the cavern below. 
This cavern, it is thought, leads to the Kedron Valley, 
but the Moslems are too superstitious to remove the stone 
that fills the exit, and thus test the matter. When all 
these nails work through the end of the world will come. 
As there are said to be only three left, we were cautioned 
by the guides to walk softly lest a jar might cause another 
to go through. 

A graceful pavilion bears the name of "David's Judg- 
ment Hall." The Moslems claim that King David hung 
a chain here as a test of men's veracity. All who were 
truthful could touch this chain without ill effects, but 
as soon as it came in contact with a liar a link fell off at 
once — one link for every lie. Had it been an endless 
chain it would doubtless have been exhausted ere this. 
Suffice it to say, not a link remains at present; even the 
staple to which the chain was attached has disappeared. 

Amidst the "dim religious light" that pervades this 
sanctuary there emanates from some of the priests "an 
odor of sanctity" not altogether pleasant to the olfactory 

This magnificent structure is built to guard and conse- 
crate a mass of unhewn stone, for this is the summit of 
Mount Moriah, the site of King Solomon's Temple. Here 
Abraham and David knelt in prayer. The Ark of the 
Covenant rested on its surface. Beneath it are cisterns 
into which the blood of the sacrifices flowed. 


The new Calvary, or Gordon's Calvary, so called in 
honor of General Gordon, who, during his visit, expressed 
his belief in it, is now accepted by many as being the true 
Calvary. Certainly it seems more likely to be the true 
Calvary than the spot which has been recognized as such 
for so many centuries. 

Those who favor this location point to the fact that 
it is outside the old walls. It is an elevation not far from 
the Damascus Gate. The shape of the hill is not unlike 
that of a skull. This and many other reasons are adduced 
to prove that this is the true Calvary. 

An unanswerable argument, settling beyond all doubt 
the question in its favor, was embodied in the reply of 
a guide to one of our party, who asked, "Why do you 
suppose this to be the real place V "When the tomb was 
opened," replied the guide, "the bones of our Lord were 
found there !" Evidently this guide had never heard of 
the resurrection and ascension of our Lord. 

But the pleasure of visiting the Holy City, and, indeed, 
all places of interest in Palestine, is marred by the persis- 
tent cry for "backsheesh, backsheesh." One hears it even 
at the gate of the Garden of Gethsamane and at the holy 
sepulchre. At every point persistent and insistent beggars 
appear. Worst of all we were importuned at Gethsemane 
by a small army of lepers. Their fingerless hands, shoe- 
less and toeless feet, whitened faces, slightless eyes and 
] laggard features excited both pity and disgust. 

The demand for a concentration and consolidation of 
all and everything that Biblical history calls for or sug- 
gests, has been created by the morbid curiosity of the 
pilgrim and tourist, and the effort to supply this demand 
is commensurate with the requirements of travelers. 
Laudable economy, therefore, has been shown in husband- 
ing everything under the roof of the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre and within the zone of the temple area. 


There is no place that appeals so forcibly to one's 
religious feeling as the Garden of Gethsemane; but alas! 
we have two supposed Gethsemanes, whose competitive 
claims are strongly urged by both the Greek and Roman 
churches. There is no doubt that the original garden was 
somewhere in this belt. 

"Here He led 
From the last Supper, when the hymn was sung, 
His few grieved followers out in that drear night, 
"When, in the garden, on the mountain's slope, 
His agony wrung forth the crimson drops." 

The generally accepted spot is that called the Latin 
Garden, because of the eight large and hoary olive trees 
within the enclosure. These trees assuredly are very 
ancient, as is attested by their size and gnarled appearance. 
Their age certainly cannot be less than a thousand years, 
and they may have sprung from the original roots of the 
trees under which "His sweat was as it were great drops 
of blood falling down to the ground." 

The garden is about 300 by 200 feet and is enclosed 
by a high, whitewashed wall. Its trees are protected by 
a high iron fence. A contribution to the attendant monk 
procured us a few leaves that had fallen from one of the 
olives and a few flowers grown on one of the borders. 
The place is laid off in flower-beds and looks like a 
modern flower garden. In this respect it is disappointing. 

The Greeks have their Garden of Gethsemane a little 
higher up the slope of the hill ; they are just as confident 
as the Romans that theirs is the right one. Standing in 
the Latin Garden with Olivet before us, we are certain, 
beyond a reasonable doubt, that this is the very hill and 
we know that the garden is not far off; and it really 
matters not whether Greek or Roman be right as to the 
identical spot where our Lord prayed that "this cup pass 
from me." 


It was at this spot, according to St. John, that "Jesus 
entered, and His disciples ; and Judas also, which betrayed 
Him, knew the place, for Jesus ofttimes resorted thither 
with His disciples." Here it was that, withdrawing from 
His disciples, He offered up that sublime prayer of resig- 
nation, "Not My will but Thine be done." 

The most pathetic scene we ever witnessed was at the 
Wall of Wailing. Outside and below the temple, near 
Robinson's Arch, which is an abutment of the bridge that 
spanned the Tyropean Valley, this wall is one hundred 
and fifty-six feet long and fifty-six feet high. Here, 
especially on Fridays, the Jews gather to bewail the deso- 
lation of Israel. 

The place is an open, paved court, filled with Jews of 
all classes and ages, male and female, who recite from the 
Lamentations of Jeremiah and the Psalms. Thev also 
put into the cracks of the walls slips of Hebrew Scripture 
passages, as well as nails, which have been sent by friends 
at a distance, who desire thus to be vicariously represented. 

For centuries the Jews have mourned over the desola- 
tion of Israel. There are no people on earth who sacrifice 
as much as they do for conscience' sake. They have 
adhered to the religion of their fathers with unswerving 
loyalty and a faith that knows no doubt. All these cen- 
turies they have kept the observance of the Passover, 
instituted to remind them of their deliverance from the 
Egyptians; the Feast of Tabernacles, to recall to their 
memory the weary wanderings of their forefathers in the 
wilderness, and the Pentecost, in token of the receiving 
of the law amidst the thunders of Sinai. Other religions 
have grown, flourished and decayed, but Judaism remains 
as firmly rooted in the Hebrew mind as the Pock of 
Gibraltar in its ocean bed. Other systems of religious 
faith have changed and have called new councils to amend 


and alter their creeds. Other people, like the Celts, the 
Saxons and Normans, mingling their blood by marriage 
and intermarriage, have lost their identity. Nations and 
peoples mentioned in Holy Writ have passed away; have 
perished from the face of the earth, and are known only 
in song and story. The Egyptian, the Babylonian and 
the Persian empires rose, flourished and vanished, but 
"God's chosen people" remain to-day as they were 
hundreds of years ago. 

While the Jews are a remarkable, a peculiar and an 
extraordinary race, they are, above all things, religious. 
They are noted also as being a law-abiding people. They 
are one as the ocean in their obedience to the laws of the 
country in which they live, but as distinct as the billows 
in their social distinctions. The Jew thrives where others 
scarcely live. He knows no decadence, no infirmities of 
age ; no weakening, either physically or intellectually. 

It has been truly said, "All things are mortal but the 

Jew; all other forces pass away, but he remains." And 


"That people once 
So famed, whom God Himself vouchsafed to call 
His chosen race, and with a guardian hand 
Deigned to protect, from Palestine exiled, 
Are doomed to wander; although scattered thus 
Through all the globe, there is no clime which they 
Can call their own, no country where their laws 
Hold sovereign rule. Irrefragable proof 
That every oracle of Holy Writ 
Was given by Heaven itself!" 

Cowper has truthfully said in this same connection — 

"They, and they only, amongst all mankind, 
Received the transcript of the Eternal mind; 
Were trusted with His own engraven laws, 
And constituted guardians of His cause!" 

"Their glory faded and their race dispersed, 
The last of nations now, though once the first." 


The Pool of Siloam is near the southern end of Jeru- 
salem. This is the pool where Christ bade the blind 
man "go wash" after He had anointed his eyes with clay. 
It no longer yields restorative and healing waters, but is 
partially filled with rocks and garbage. 

The most sacred thoroughfare in Jerusalem is the 
Via Dolorosa, said to be the street along which our Lord 
bore His cross to Calvary. But there can be no certainty 
about this, even if this is the route, as the Jerusalem of 
the time of Christ, except the temple area, is buried 
beneath the rubbish of centuries, anywhere from a depth 
of thirty to a hundred feet. 

In this street is shown the house of Pontius Pilate, and 
thence, past the Ecce Homo Arch, one has pointed out to 
him the place where Pilate is supposed to have said, 
"Behold the Man." A spot is indicated where Jesus took 
the cross on His shoulders ; another where He fell in 
weakness ; another still where He addressed the women 
of Jerusalem, and yet another where Veronica, it is said, 
wiped the perspiration from His brow. 

Some distance farther on is a depression in the w T all, 
caused, it is alleged, by Christ's elbow, as He pressed 
against it in His fall. 

Amongst other holy sites on this street are the houses 
of Veronica, and of Dives, at whose door Lazarus begged. 
There is also exhibited the stone near which the thirty 
pieces of silver were counted out to Judas. If one were 
satisfied that this were really the street through which our 
blessed Lord passed, and that I he statements about these 
sites were authentic, one's heart would be wrung with 
anguish and one's eyes bedimmed with tears. But there 
is always the element of doubt. 

We also see the Tower of David, the Pool of TTezekiah 
and the Pool of Bethsaida, where the waters were troubled 


for the healing of the people and where Christ healed the 
impotent man, who was unable to get into 1 the pool. It 
was 372 by 126 with a depth of sixty-eight feet. Other 
reputed sacred places are too numerous to mention. 

One night during our sojourn in the Holy City, as 
president of the Masonic Association of the Steamer 
Arabic, I called the craft together and we all proceeded 
to Solomon's Quarry near the Damascus Gate. The 
quarry extends about 700 feet under the city. Our party 
was photographed by flash light. 

From this quarry was procured, it is said, the stone out 
of which the temple was built by King Solomon. The 
stone is almost white and when first cut is quite soft, but 
becomes hard on exposure to the air. A tradition exists 
among Masons that the order was instituted by King 
Solomon himself in this quarry. 

The Jews, Mohammedans, Greeks and Armenians have 
distinct quarters, each with their characteristic costumes 
and habits of life. There are other nationalites, too, for 
forty languages are spoken in Jerusalem. If all the 
inhabitants were to attempt to talk at one time what a 
babel there would be ! 

While in Jerusalem onr party of three employed as 
dragoman one John Doorsy, who signs himself "wrightter 
Erabic letters and Pittishens in the streat of the Holy 
Sappillkeer." Doorsy is a native of Jerusalem, a Chris- 
tian and a teacher of English, "as she is writ" in Jerusa- 
lem. He was for many years a teacher in Bishop Gobart's 
School, but owing to bad eyes, an affliction from which a 
large number of the inhabitants suffer, he had to give up 
the position, so he now follows the vocation above indi- 
cated, and in addition pilots visitors around. We found 
him intelligent, prompt and courteous. 

On the second day of our visit, after a hard day's 


tramp and ride, he invited us to his house to take some 
refreshment, saying he would consider it a great honor 
and pleasure to entertain us. Entering his door, we were 
greeted by his wife, who kissed our hands. This cere- 
mony over, we were introduced to the thirteenth baby, a 
buxom brat of about six months, who exhibited his first 
tooth with the incipient pride of unsophisticated youth. 

George, or as his father writes it, Jorge, is a very bright 
little chap, who "swam" on the floor and crowed for our 
entertainment with great gusto, much to the delight of his 
fond mother and to the profound satisfaction of his aged 
father. This boy, it should be understood, is the Ben- 
jamin of the father's old age. 

After "Jorge" had again and again exhibited his first 
tooth and gotten through with his acrobatic performances, 
our host brought in a bottle of wine 2 which we discussed 
with enjoyment. The jbaby took a spoonful of this and 
Madam accepted a glass at my hands. We then partook 
of some cakes and confections, the repast ending with 
Turkish coffee. The house, which was cold and had floors 
of marble or stone, sadly needed a fire, but neither the 
baby nor his parents seemed to feel uncomfortable, 
although we had to keep on our overcoats to be com- 

Since our return home I received the following letter 
from Dragoman Doorsy, which is a good sample of 
phonetic spelling: 

From Jerusalem in (24) May 1906. 
Dear Mr. J. S. Moore: 

Sinse your Magesti left Jerusalem till now you do not appsent 
from my mind if you plies as to let me no that you poth ritch 
your homp safe in good health and in great beace. 

Then also I beg to say that befor (1) month God from his 
Marcyfuly tammted me in that time that I am ought syed the 
Jaffa geat it poshet me from behind me one carriage and in my 
bag to the ground and from this rision untill now I am remened 





in the badstad. My Son Jorge just he swim on the floor as Lo 
fatch on you for to kiss your hand and for to give you a capp 
of wine from his hand and he also recommend himself to be a 
Son for you then on this matter we believe that your Magesty 
his Fatheer therefor because you are the Fartheer of Marcy as 
to do with your Son from time to time in eny kind of favour 
for the sake of his Motheer and because she has a sore eyes. 
And instad of that we all ask God to keep you all as well and 
to giv you the Inheritins of his Kingdom. And also by this letter 
I send to you the pictior of my Son Jorge as to remember him 
by your Marcyfully. 

Lastlay) as to accept from me from my wife our great regerds 
to your Shilldern and to your all Famala and to my friend Mr. 
J. V. Perley, and also I hope from your kindness for to manshind 
my name to your Parens and to your Frands in eny seazen they 
wish to come to Jerusalem as to be a Dragoamn for them; I am 
be opplidged as to sand for me the answer. 

This es my address, John Doorsy. 

Wrightter Erabic Letters and Pittishens in the Streat of the 
Holy Sappillker. 

"And a certain man went down from Jerusalem to 
Jericho." We never before realized the significance of 
the little word "down" until we took this trip. The dis- 
tance from Jerusalem to Jericho, in an air line, is about 
thirteen miles and by the ordinary route about sixteen, 
but the road is very precipitous and rough, and the Plain 
of Jericho is over 3,600 feet below Jerusalem; hence the 
significance of the word "down." 

Our method of travel was in an open carriage with 
three horses. The sun was hot ; the road, where not hilly, 
dusty and the poor beasts were unmercifully lashed by 
the drivers. 

We had not traveled more than half the distance when 
"The Young Voyager," who sat in the front seat just 
behind the coachman, showed signs of distress by coughs 
and nose-blowing. After a while he remarked that he 
did not believe the driver had taken a bath since his 
birth, and that the odor emanating from him was awful, 
but we subsequently discovered that this unpleasant smell 


came not from the driver, but from the horses. These 
animals are fed, not like the horse of "Captain Jinks of 
the Horse Marines," on oats and beans, but on barley and 
cauliflower, and when they perspire the ensuing scent is 
like a combination of gunpowder and asafoetida, or the 
stink pots used by the Chinese in their naval engagements. 

Jerusalem produces the finest cauliflower in the world, 
and at first we were very fond of it, but we could never 
relish it after our trip to Jericho. 

From our observations we concluded that the drivers 
of Palestine were the most cruel we had ever met. On 
one occasion our horses balked at a hill, whereupon the 
brutal jehu got out and hit one of the animals on the head 
with a large stone. He thereby lost his "tip," for we 
told him that on account of his cruelty we would give him 
no "backsheesh." 

A pleasant contrast torthese brutes are the cabmen of 
Naples, who drive their horses without bits in the mouth, 
guiding them by pulling the rein in the direction they 
wish the animals to go. We commend them to the tender 
consideration of the S. P. C. A. Associations. In Naples, 
by the way, the horses and donkeys hitched to carts some- 
times have a wisp of hay tied to the cart saddle, so that 
when not traveling the beasts can reach around and get a 

The road to Jericho is through the winding Valley of 
the Jordan, with the gray and desolate-looking mountains 
of Moab in the distance, and the whole region treeless and 
barren; yet these bare, billowy hills and great ravines are 
not without their impressiveness and grandeur. After 
traveling some time we came to the Wady-el-Had, or 
Valley of the Watering Place, the only spring of water 
between Bethany and the Jordan Valley. It is called 
the Apostles' Spring, and there can be no doubt that our 
Lord and His disciples drank from it. 


We continued our descent through the barren waste 
until we passed the spot where "a certain man went down 
from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among thieves/' and 
pretty soon we were comfortably housed in the Khan 
Hadrur, or Good Samaritan Inn. This hostelry is about 
half way to Jericho. Here we partook of refreshments 
with a good deal of enjoyment and relish. We, how- 
ever, did not try the oil which was poured into the wounds 
of the unfortunate who fell among the thieves, but we 
did drink a bottle of very in different wine, evidently not # 
of the vintage of which the unfortunate partook, unless 
age adds to acidity and insipidity. The thieves of this 
section were in evidence in the shape of fakirs with 
curios and antiques offered at high prices. 

Among the curios exhibited here is the shirt of Goliath 
of Gath. It is about ten feet long and four feet broad. 
When we saw it there were no blood stains on the garment, 
so it could not have been the one Goliath wore when David 
smote him in the forehead and slew him. 

We next journeyed to the Brook Cherith, where Elijah, 
the Tishbite, was fed by the ravens. Ravens are still seen 
flying about this section. In Palestine, in Egypt, and 
even on the Continent, the raven is a semi-domesticated 
bird ; he resembles in shape our common crow, but in the 
Orient his plumage is not entirely black like our bird's. 
His breast is rather a whiteish-brown. These Eastern 
ravens are quite tame and do not fear man. 

In Cairo, just in front of Shepard's Hotel, we noticed 
a raven's nest, and also found numbers of their abodes 
elsewhere. On the "Continent," too, we have seen them 
following a few feet behind the ploughmen and picking 
up the grubs unearthed. 

Elijah must have had a very lonesome time at the 
Brook Cherith. It is a very uncomfortable looking place, 


and we do not blame him for changing his quarters to the 
house of the widow of Zarepeth. 

In the ravine is a Greek monastery. It is built against 
the side of the cliffs ; how any one gets in and out of the 
place, unless he is let down and pulled up by a rope, is a 
mystery. We were told that no woman had ever been 
across its threshold. Sensible women! One immured 
within its walls would soon be dead to all mundane affairs. 

The site of ancient Jericho is indicated by a large 
mound, and as one looks at this mass of earth one can 
but exclaim: Are these the remnants of the walls that 
fell at the blasts of the trumpet ? And viewing the deso- 
lation, where once stood the city of P alius, one naturally 
recalls the awful words pronounced by Joshua: "Cursed 
be the man before the Lord that riseth up and buildeth 
this city Jericho." Jericho in its day evidently was a 
city of importance ; its walls were so considerable that 
houses were built upon them. 

It was the first city in Canaan which fell into the hands 
of the Israelites. Jericho, for a considerable period, was 
the second city of Judea, and, according to the Talmud, 
contained twelve hundred priests. It had its hippodrome 
and amphitheatre, and in its royal palace Herod the 
Tetrarch died. 

Near the eastern base of the mound is Elisha's Foun- 
tain — the one the prophet salted, and whose waters he 
made sweet, so that they "were healed unto this day." 
We drank of them and found them sweet. It is a beauti- 
ful stream, with water enough to turn a mill wheel, and 
it irrigates the whole Valley of Jericho. Wherever its 
waters touch fertility prevails. Near the fountain is the 
Cave of Elisha, and over against it beyond Jordan, Elijah 
"went up by a whirlwind into Heaven" — when Elisha 
possessed himself of Elijah's magical mantle. 


At this famous fountain we met with the Governor of 
Jerusalem and his suite. Perley, who is always anxious 
to make acquaintances, gave one of the party a military 
salute, and entering into conversation with the man, pro- 
ceeded to give his "military experience." Later Perley 
came to us and reported that he had been invited by the 
Governor to call on him at Jerusalem. We asked him 
to point out the Executive to us, which he did. The man, 
however, proved not to be his Excellency, but the corporal 
of the squad, so after that we frequently asked Perley 
when he intended to call on the Governor and when he 
expected to dine with him. 

According to Josephus, the Plain of Jericho was the 
most fertile and delightful in the world; but then, there 
was a pretty good slice of the world that Josephus never 
saw. Therefore, due allowance must be made when he 
says : "He who should pronounce this place divine would 
not be mistaken. It will not be easy to light on any 
climate in the habitable earth that can be compared to it." 

In our judgment the climate must have undergone a 
wonderful transformation since the time of this Jewish 

A dilapidated building is pointed out in Jericho as the 
identical house where Jesus was entertained by Zaccheus. 
The only reason why the sycamore tree into which Zaccheus 
climbed on that occasion is not shown, is because the only 
tree in the vicinity is a palm, supposed to be the sole 
survivor of the famous grove that gave ancient Jericho 
the name "City of Palm Trees." 

Modern Jericho consists of a few wretched hovels, 
inhabited by an unattractive people. The only object 
of interest in the village is a ruined tower, built as a 
protection against robbers. Here it was in the days of 
the ancient Jericho that our Lord restored the sight of 
blind Bartimeus. 



A half-hour's ride brings one to Gilgal. Here the 
twelve stones taken from the Jordan were set up as a 
memorial, and here, by Divine command, the Passover 
was celebrated. 

The custom of measuring distances by time is still 
observed as in ancient days ; distance is always spoken 
of as so many hours, not so many miles, as with us. 

Several times on this trip all of us had to get out and 
walk, owing to the steepness and roughness of the roads 
and to the fact that our horses were not able to carry us 
up or down the ascents and declivities with safety. 
During the whole journey, both going and coming, we 
were guarded by a detail of armed Bedouins under one 
of their Sheiks ; otherwise the trip would not have been 
safe. We were made to realize the truth of the old song, 
"Jordan is a hard road to trabble, I believe." 

From Jericho we drove to the Jordan. We were dis- 
appointed at the stream, for its waters were muddy, and 
although the river had overflowed its banks, it was not 
more than fifty or sixty yards wide. The Jordan's banks 
are low and the view unattractive. 

We took a boat ride on the river at the place pointed 
out as the identical spot where Christ was baptized. He 
could easily have been immersed, as I presume He was. 

As I stood musing on the shores of this famed river 
that old hymn came into my mind — 

"On Jordan's stormy banks I stand 
And cast a wishful eye 
To Canaan's fair and happy land, 
Where my possessions lie." 

And I wondered, too, if the writer had ever seen the 
Jordan except in his imagination. The hymn, I suppose, 
was a figment of the fancy, but it is not without force. 
Witness these lines — 


"Baptized as for the dead, He rose 

With prayer from Jordan's hallowed flood; 
Ere long by persecuting foes, 
To be baptized in His own blood." 

Both on our trip down and back we encountered many 
caravans of camels tied_ together with strings, head to 
tail, and of donkeys in groups of three or four, laden 
with oranges, flour, faggots and produce. 

The Jordan, to the imagination of the Jew, is a mag- 
nificent river. He invests it with a poetic imagery to 
which it is not entitled, except upon sentimental and 
religious grounds. Divested of its associations, it would 
be an ordinary stream of water, in no wise comparable to 
thousands of streams elsewhere. 

From the Jordan we drove to the shores of the Dead 
Sea — the Salt Sea of the Bible. It is quite desolate, 
but not wanting in some beautiful aspects towards the 
purple mountains of Moab, which rise on the horizon. 
It is generally customary for pilgrims to bathe in the 
Jordan and the Dead Sea, but when our party was there 
it was a very bleak day, and not one of our travelers, to 
my knowledge, availed himself of the opportunity. 

The Dead Sea is forty-seven miles long and from three 
to nine miles wide, and its greatest depth is 1,310 feet. 
Its surface is about 1,300 feet below the Mediterranean. 
No living thing is found in its bitter waters, and no 
vegetation exists on its barren shores. It is estimated 
that about six and one-half million tons of water flow into 
it every day, all of which are carried off by evaporation, 
as the sea has no visible outlet. 

In going from the Jordan to the Dead Sea we passed 
through miles of barren land formerly covered by the 
water, which is receding year by year. The entire surface 
is covered with incrustations of salt that sparkle in the 
sun like thousands of scintillating diamonds. 


The trip to the Jordan and Dead Sea is one we would 
not have missed but we have no desire to take it again — 
one is quantum sufficit. 

We passed on the way many camps of Arabs. Their 
tents consisted of two or three poles and a piece of 
canvas — sometimes an old quilt or coverlet stretched on 
four poles. These people still seem to lead the same 
nomadic life they have lived for so many centuries. 
Some of the Arabs we saw had a few cattle, but most of 
them looked poverty-stricken and grovelling in want and 

Somewhere in this section stood Sodom and Gomorrah. 
Whether they actually lie covered by the waters of the 
Dead Sea, as some writers suppose, is unknown; but as 
the Bible speaks of them as cities of the plain it does 
not seem necessary to believe they are covered by these 

On our return from Jericho and the Dead Sea we 
stopped at Bethany, where dwelt Martha and Mary, and 
where Lazarus lived. It was on Christ's return to this 
city that the incident of the barren fig tree occurred. It 
was here, too, in the house of Simon the leper, that "there 
came unto Him a woman having an alabaster box of very 
precious ointment and poured it on His head at He sat 
at meat," at which seeming waste His disciples com- 
plained. And it was from this village He sent forth 
two of His disciples to "find a colt tied, whereon never 
man sat" — the animal upon which He rode into Jeru- 

Here Perlcy — the irrepressible — being thirsty, asked 
for some water, but as his articulation is not generally 
distinct, the Arab to whom he addressed his request 
turned to me and asked, "What language does your friend 
speak V 9 


Near Bethany we saw many flocks of sheep attended 
by their keepers, and the sight recalled the descriptions 
in the Bible, "And there were in the same counitry 
shepherds abiding in the fields, keeping watch over their 
flocks by night." Hard by was what the natives call the 
"Eye of the Sun," which marks the boundary between 
the mountains of Moab and the Judean Mountains. 

It was in this section that Jesus found His friend, 
Lazarus, whom He raised from the dead. We were 
shown a ruined tower, said to be the remains of the house 
of Lazarus and his sisters. The tomb of Lazarus is on 
the edge of the village. It is of considerable size and 
has an arched chamber and four niches for the reception 
of bodies ; moreover, there is an unbroken sarcophagus 

The mountains of Moab and the Judean hills in this 
vicinity are bare of vegetation. There is absolutely no 
timber. The slight growth of to-day is consumed to- 
morrow by the many flocks of goats and sheep that graze 
on the sides daily. The limits of the fields are marked 
by neither fences nor enclosures, but by a narrow strip 
of unploughed ground or a heap of stones — not even a 
hedge. The cattle are all tended. 

Many caravans of camels and donkeys passed us on 
our return to Jerusalem. In the prime of Rome all roads 
led to the Eternal City; in Palestine all public highways 
led to Jerusalem, the Holy City. 

On our return from Jericho to Jerusalem we passed 
the Mount of Temptation, which overlooks the plain and 
faces Jericho. But if the prospect presented to Christ 
was not more alluring than the scene before us, He 
deserved no particular credit for resistance to the wiles 
of the arch fiend. When the devil, doubtless looking 
down the slope of the mountain, asked that "these stones 


be made bread/' he called for a greater miracle than 
the mere words would indicate, since the whole side of 
the mountain, as well as the plain, is a mass of broken 
boulders and rock, which, converted into food, would have 
served the whole of Judea for years. Along the face of 
the mountain are caves, once used by hermits. 

Barring the cold, we were fortunate in having lovely 
weather during our stay in Palestine — the days sunshiny 
and delightful and the nights cool, but lit up by a 
resplendent moon and by a bright and scintillating galaxy 
of stars. 

The sunsets of Jerusalem, by the way, are very beauti- 
ful — the yellow, the violet and the rose, all mingling, 
form a most gorgeous combination of colors, rivalling 
the rainbow in its many and varied tints ; the blending 
of scarlet, green, gold and crimson with blue and emerald, 
is lovely beyond description; and the effect is heightened 
by the outlines of the sacred hills as they merge with 
the shadows of the distant mountains. 

On this trip we also saw the sun rise over the moun- 
tains of Moab and beheld Aurora as she mounted their 
summits in her chariot, dispelling darkness and clothing 
the landscape in the tints of the morning; kissing the 
dewdrops with the fragrance of her presence, and bathing 
hill and valley in the soft rays of the rising sun, until 
she "sealed up the stars." We never before had so fully 
realized the poetic beauty of those Biblical words, which 
say: "There is one glory of the sun, and another glory 
of the moon, and another glory of the stars." 

One night during our stay in Jerusalem it was so cold 
and the hotel so uncomfortable, owing to its lack of fires, 
that we retired to our rooms, and recalling the experience 
of Col. Mulberry Sellers, lighted a couple of candles; 
but finding no appreciable change in the atmospheric con- 


ditions we cut the candles in two, thus making four 
lights. Our scheme, however, was all in vain. We, 
therefore, put our overcoats on the bed clothes and covered 
up to keep warm. 

The hotels at Jerusalem, be it said, are of the poorest 
quality ; the accommodations miserable ; the service of the 
worst kind and the fare indifferent. One of our friends, 
who was stopping at another house in the ancient city, 
came to our hotel and boasted that he had had fowl at 
his hotel once a day ever since his stay there. "That is 
nothing," said I, "we have had three foul meals every 
day we have been here." 

Speaking of fowls, reminds me that Judge Masters 
made due research, but found no records of the importa- 
tion of any foreign poultry into Palestine. He, therefore, 
concluded that we were fed from the lineal descendants 
of that celebrated cock that crowed to arouse Peter, when 
he denied his Master. If such a thing were possible, 
judging from the difficulty we found in masticating a 
certain bird on our table, we think the same old cock was 
served at the Hotel de Park. 

The bread also was ancient and indigestible. Most of 
the water used in Jerusalem comes from cisterns, but 
some is brought in from neighboring springs in leather 
skins. Goat and pig hides are used, and in size and 
shape the receptacles remind one of the water bottles 
referred to in the Bible. "The Young Voyager" dis- 
covered some mollywigs and polliwigs in his wash basin, 
and suggested that the Israelites, on their return from 
Egypt, must have brought some of Pharaoh's frogs along 
with them. 

The hotel waiters are a mongrel set, composed of Arabs 
and negroes and a mixture of both. All are poorly 
groomed and careless in the discharge of their duties, but 
anxious for "backsheesh" just the same. 


Our next trip was to Bethlehem. We passed the Hill 
of Evil Council and then came to the Well of the Magi, 
where the Wise Men saw reflected in the water the Star, 
which in their journey they had lost sight of on the road 
to Bethlehem. 

Many of the houses in Bethlehem are built of sun- 
burnt brick — miserable abodes — and the occupants appear 
to be poor and destitute. Men, women and children go 
barelegged and barefooted. But in some places the fields 
and hillsides are carpeted with poppies, buttercups, 
daisies and other wild flowers. 

About three miles from Jerusalem one comes to the 
well from which the Holy Family is said to have drunk 
in its flight into Egypt. Here may be seen the Field of 
Peas, so-called from the legend that our Lord once 
inquired of a man what he was sowing, and on receiving 
the curt reply, "Stones," forthwith turned the peas the 
farmer was scattering into stones. This tale does not 
strike one as being in keeping with the gentle nature of 
our Lord. 

Bethlehem in the early morning presents a pretty 
picture — a scene long to be cherished in memory. "The 
little town of Bethlehem" on the hillside with its houses 
clustered together, offers a pleasant sight. The streets 
are cleaner and the women and children better looking 
and more decently dressed than in any other place in 

In Bible history, Bethlehem is associated with the 
lovely romance of Ruth and the youthful home life of 
David. It is also notable as the birth place of Joab, 
Asahel and Abishai, but its crowning distinction is that 
here our Saviour first saw the light. Beautifully has 
the poet said: 


"At His birth, a star 
Unseen before in Heaven, proclaims Him come, 
And guides the Eastern sages, who inquire 
His place, to offer incense, myrrh and gold. 
His place of birth, a solemn angel tells 
To simple shepherds keeping watch by night." 

Many things in the Holy Land are apocryphal, but 
there seems to exist not a shadow of a doubt that this is 
the birthplace of Jesus. The Church of the Nativity, 
built over the grotto or manger where Christ was born, 
is the oldest church in the world, unless we except the 
Pantheon in Rome, which is still in good condition. The 
Pantheon was a pagan temple before the Christian era, 
but in the third century became a Christian house of 
worship. The Church of the Nativity, on the other hand, 
was not erected until the year 330 A. D. Its exterior 
indicates its antiquity. The interior has an impressive 
simplicity, in keeping with our Lord's character and 
simple life. It has forty-four monolithic columns with 
Corinthian capitals. In the crypt of the Nativity the 
tourist is shown the cave, or grotto, where it is believed 
that Christ was born. But there is nothing in the sur- 
roundings and environments which savors of a manger. 

The church is about forty feet long, twelve wide and 
ten feet high. The walls are of masonry and the pave- 
ment of marble, with a silver star in the floor near the 
altar, with these words, "Hie de Virgine Maria, Jesus 
Christus natus est." Thirty-two lamps light the chapel. 

A short distance from the Star of Nativity is the 
manger where Christ was first cradled. We go down a 
few steps into a room about ten feet square. The altar 
of the manger is on one side; that dedicated to the Magi 
is opposite on the other side. 

The so-called manger is a block of white marble, 
hollowed out. It occupies a recess in the grotto, and 


is about two feet high and four in length. In the grotto 
is a picture of the Magi offering gifts to the infant Jesus. 

The alleged original manger, or trough, was carried 
to Rome. There are various altars and chapels. One, 
dedicated to the Holy Innocents, marks the place where 
several children that were concealed, were found and 
slain by Herod. 

A short distance from the town is the so-called Field 
of the Shepherds, where the shepherds were "abiding in 
the field, keeping watch over their flock by night/ 7 when 
the angel brought them "good tidings of great joy." J^ot 
far away, Ruth gleaned among the sheaves in the field 
of Boaz and set her triggers to entangle him in the net 
of matrimony — a feat which she successfully accom- 

Bethlehem is the most hopeful of all the towns in the 
Holy Land. It has a population of about six thousand, 
all of whom are Christians^except about two hundred and 
fifty Moslems. 

We were shown the spot where Saul lay asleep when 
David "took the spear and the cruse of water from Saul's 
bolster" ; and also the Cave of Adullum, where David 
concealed himself. We also visited the Tombs of the 
Kings, where it is said that thirty-seven Jewish monarchs 
were interred. The chambers are cut in the solid rock, 
covering probably half an acre of ground, but each one 
has been despoiled of its coffin. Xot even a bone is left. 
Emptiness reigns supreme. 

To us was pointed out a well over which it is said the 
Star of Bethlehem stood, and also the Tomb of Rachel, 
where she wept over her children and would not be com- 
forted. An arched stone sarcophagus covers the good 
woman's remains. Seven days in every year the Jews 
come to tin's tomb and hold services in her memory. 



We were shown the Grotto of Milk, where lies the 
stone upon which, it is said, that Mary nursed Jesns. 
Some of the Virgin's milk spilt or flowed on the stone, 
which, according to popular belief, endows it with miracu- 
lous qualities. Women who are short in their supply of 
milk come here and sit on the stone or send for a few 
grains of it, which they pulverize and eat ; and the happy 
result is an increasing flow from, their breasts. (?) 

We also saw the Well of David "that is at the Gate of 
Bethlehem. " It was for this he "longed, and said, 'Oh, 
that one would give me drink of the water of Bethlehem, 
that is at the Gate.' " And three of his brave soldiers 
"broke through the host of the Philistines" and took it 
to David, but notwithstanding his great thirst, he refused 
to drink it, because these men had put their lives in 
jeopardy for his sake. 

On the occasion of our visit the flocks were grazing 
on the same hills and were being driven along the same 
paths as of yore. Women and children were on the sides 
of the mountain gathering sticks. These, for the most 
part, they bound into bundles and bore on their backs, 
after having secured them by the rope with which they 
were bound across their foreheads. Some bore the 
bundles on their heads. 

At Bethlehem the chief occupation seemed to be the 
making of crosses, beads, stars and other ornaments of 
pearl for sale to the tourists. We saw some shells, the 
workmanship of which was most delicate and exquisite. 

On our last day in Jerusalem we took another trip to 
the Mount of Olives, the Garden of Gethsemane and the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre — places we never expect 
to see again. Then we silently bade them adieu, pro- 
foundly thankful that we had been permitted to view 
these sacred places, hallowed by so many associations and 


sanctified by His presence. It was a profound satisfac- 
tion, after such a day's tramp, to get back to the hotel, 
poor as it was, and sink down into a comfortable chair. 

"Boys will be boys" the world over. Witness the fact 
that we saw the urchins of Jerusalem playing marbles 
and pitching pennies, although they do not play marbles 
like our youngsters. They put the "taw" on the ground 
and shove it with the forefinger, instead of shooting it 
from the thumb. The cent-pitching was the same as ours. 

The Jews in Jerusalem are a hard looking set ; they 
do not compare with the Jews in our city. Among the 
common people the moral degeneracy is frightful. Their 
houses are filthy, their persons unclean. They are very 
heavily taxed, and it is said that their poverty is becoming 
more pitiful, while the beggars are growing more 
numerous and more persistent. The city of Jerusalem 
has neither bookstore nor newspaper, so that ignorance 
goes hand in hand witli poverty and untidiness. 


Alexandria and the Bay of Abukir — Rural Egypt a Land of Flies 
and Fertility — Irrigation Methods — Touching Scarab Beetles 
and Camels — Government Dispensary at Baliana — Ruins at 
Abydos — Egyptians of To-Day — Wished-for Crocodiles Never 
Appeared — Wonders at Karnack — Temple of Rameses — Thebes 
and its Colossal Guards — Kings who Built Pyramids — The 
Ascent of Cheops — Facts About the Inscrutable Sphynx — 
Sights in Cairo — An Ostrich Farm. 

We left Jerusalem March 13th and reached Alexandria 
the next day. The approach to Alexandria reminds an 
American of Atlantic City, stretching as it does for miles 
along the strip of land which lies between the Mediter- 
ranean Sea and Lake Mareotis. 

The first object that strikes the vision is the Pharos. 
This is "the direct descendant" of the earliest light-house 
in the world, the Pharos Tower, built in the reign of 
Ptolemy II. 9 Philadelphia. The original tower was 
nearly six hundred feet high, and in it great fires were 
kept burning every night as beacon lights for mariners 
along the coast. It was regarded as one of the seven 
wonders of the world. 

Not far away is the Bay of Abukir, where that noble 
youth, Casabianca, the son of the Admiral of the Nile, 
lost his life and won for himself the immortal encomium 
beginning — 

"The boy stood on the burning deck, 
Whence all but he had fled, 
The flame that lit the battle's wreck 
Shone round him o'er the dead." 

The next most prominent object that attracts the eye 


is Pompey's Pillar. This shaft is a single block of red 
granite about ninety feet high. Its name is a misnomer, 
as it was erected in honor of Diocletian, and has no 
historical relation to Pompey. 

Owing to the prevalence of the plague, we were not 
permitted to visit the city. In the harbor we found three 
men of war flying the Stars and Stripes; a large flotilla 
of small boats and many merchantmen loading and dis- 
charging their varied cargoes. 

Our journey by rail from Alexandria to Cairo was 
very pleasant, the service good, with modern accommoda- 
tions, and quite in contrast with the railroads of Spain. 
We passed many mud huts and hovels, covered with grass 
and straw, in which the natives live. In the pastured 
were sheep and cattle and the peculiar looking JSTile ox. 
The country is very level and the landscape is made 
beautiful by shapely and luxurious palms. Many brick 
kilns met our gaze, and as we looked on these we thought 
of the unhappy children of Israel and their relentless 
taskmasters, the Egyptians, who "made their lives bitter 
with hard bondage, in mortar and in brick." 

There are no fences in Egypt; the narrow strip that 
lies on each side of the ISTile is one continuous field of 
verdant green, whose boundaries are determined by the 
ancient landmarks of stones. 

The fellahs working in the fields, in their unique and 
variegated costumes, present a novel and picturesque sight. 

We found the dust very troublesome, but on the train 
was a "duster" in the form of a shapely Arab, who came 
regularly through the cars with his brush. 

Hundreds of years ago, the historian, Herodotus, wrote : 
"Egypt contains more wonders than any other land, and 
is pre-eminent above all the countries in the world." This 
declaration stands to-day undisputed and verified. 


From Cairo we traveled up the Nile to Luxor and 
Karnack, where we saw the ruins of ancient temples rep- 
resenting a civilization long since past and gone — a civili- 
zation that left its footprints on the sands of time in the 
shape of superb monuments, temples, pyramids and 
obelisks, unsurpassed in grandeur and beauty, as samples 
of sculpture and art. 

Some of the paintings on the walls of the temples, in 
the mausoleums and chambers of the dead, or on the 
mummy cases, are as vivid in color as if put. there yester- 
day, and yet they were made thousands of years ago. The 
shifting sands of the desert, the devastation wrought by 
man, the disintegration due to time and earthquakes and 
the gnawing tooth of the elements have laid many of 
Egypt's temples in the dust; but the paintings and the 
sculpture on what are left are perfectly preserved, so far 
as the freshness of the coloring goes. This seemingly 
imperishable work is now a lost art, as the pigment is 
unknown to the present generation. It is supposed that 
the ancient Egyptians made their pigments by dissolving 
the metals themselves. 

Wonderful is the fecundity of the Nile ! The Romans 
always spoke of their favorite river as "Father Tiber," 
while the natives of Egypt called their magic stream 
"Father Nile." We recall seeing in the museum at 
Rome a colossal recumbent statue, taken from Egypt 
when that country was under Roman rule, and called 
"Father Nile." In the hands of the giant are sheaves 
of wheat and barley ; around his knees and on his body are 
children playing; cattle and sheep graze in the rich 
pastures and fish are laid at his feet on the banks of this 
wonderful river. 

The Nile ranks as one of the four longest rivers in the 
world, being about four thousand miles in length. It 


is the Life-Giver — a stream of life between two conti- 
nents of death — the great deserts. Some conception of 
this great river can be formed when it is stated (we 
suppose truthfully) that for more than a thousand miles 
no stream empties into it before the Nile reaches the 

Its waters are used to irrigate the entire length of its 
course, where the land is cultivated ; it supplies the wants 
of neary ten million people; great quantities of its water 
are evaporated, and yet it is estimated that it empties 
into the Mediterranean 61,500 cubic feet of w^ater every 

In sooth, the fecundity of the Nile is most wonderful ; 
wherever its magical waters touch, fertility exists ; and 
w 7 here its waters do not reach, desolation and aridity 
prevail. This fecundity extends not only to inanimate, 
but to animated nature ; not only to the vegetable, but 
to the animal kingdom. In the vast country traversed 
by the Nile the women all have children and the domestic 
animals breed rapidly, while the insect life is wonder- 
fully prolific. 

Many of the plagues introduced by Moses yet remain. 
The flies he invoked are still represented by a lively and 
active race. In vain do you sing "Shoofly, don't bother 
me," to them. At all times they can be seen on the faces 
and around the eyes of the children, who bear them with 
patience, as the Egyptian regards the fly as a sacred 
insect, and has great respect for the god of flies. Your 
scion of the Pharaohs does not wish to insult his 
majesty; and the fly, not being accustomed to being dis- 
turbed in his meditations or perambulations, resents the 
rebuffs of the irreverent traveler. Try your hand on 
the insect and he will come back at you with a persis- 
tent, determined buzz of indignation and surprise, so 


that you have to carry a fly wisp in your hand all the 
time, and must use it vigorously. Why these pests 
should annoy an innocent American, I cannot see; cer- 
tainly it is not a case of the visitation of the sins of the 
fathers upon the children, because we are not of the 
same race. 

The trip up the Nile in the steamer Victoria — a dis- 
tance of about four hundred and fifty miles — was exceed- 
ingly pleasant and enjoyable. At last we had reached 
a land where the icicles and frosts of Jerusalem and 
Jericho were thawed into pleasant streams of perspira- 

The scenery along the Nile is striking and charac- 
teristic of the country. Crops are raised entirely by 
irrigation. We were told that it never rains, yet on our 
trip to the Tomb of the Kings "The Young Voyager" 
had occasion to remark, "It rains!" "Go away, boy," 
I said, "it has not rained here for thousands of years." 
But in confirmation of his assertion, I saw about two 
drops descend, one of which struck my hand. A lady 
also said she had heard a few drops pelting the roof of 
her hotel the previous night. 

The same primitive methods that obtained during the 
days of the Pharaohs still prevail in Egypt. There are 
three ways in which the water is raised to the little 
channels through which it is carried off to irrigate the 
fields. The shaduf has been used from the earliest 
times. It is a kind of seesaw palm beam, or pole, with 
a lump of Nile mud at one end and a rod with a bucket 
attached at the other; it is worked by one, and some- 
times by two men, who lift it eight or ten feet. When 
the river is very low, three, four and sometimes five-lift 
shadufs may be seen carrying the water to the fields. 

The second medium is the sakiya. It is a huge 


horizontal wheel, dragged round and round by a yoke 
of oxen or a donkey and a buffalo — sometimes by a camel. 
The animals turn a vertical wheel, on which is a rope 
connecting a number of earthen pots, that dip up the 
water as the wheel revolves, and then empty it into a 
trough at the top. 

The third is the Archimedean screw, which revolves 
with a rotary and suction motion; but the shaduf and 
sakiya are in more general use. 

We were told that higher up steam pumps were being 
introduced, but if brought into general use, these will 
do away with one of the most picturesque scenes on 
the Nile. 

On our steamer the meals were served by Nubian 
waiters; they are a fine set of fellows, about the color 
of our mulattoes — lithe, graceful and agile as cats. 
They dress in pure white gowns, reaching nearly to their 
ankles ; red fezes, red' slippers, red sashes and black 
stockings, and present a most picturesque appearance. 
These Nubians are unusually polite and attentive to 
their duties. 

In our ship's company we had an Egyptian fakir with 
a supply of scarabs, beads, rings, jewels and bracelets — 
all genuine (?) antiques. On our second day's journey 
he made his appearance on deck and placed his com- 
modities on a table for inspection. After he had dwelt 
for some time on their beautv, and stated the different 
dynasties in which each article was used or made, he 
named his prices. The figiires ranged from one pound 
to twenty-five pounds. 

I stepped to the table, and taking up one or two 
scarabs, said, without cracking a smile, **Give me the 
three best you have for ten cents." I never saw a fellow 
so knocked out as he was. He said he had none of that 


Many persons paid extraordinary prices for these 
trinkets — prices far beyond what the things were worth, 
and a great deal more than they would have had to pay 
had they waited until they reached Luxor. A native 
never expects you to pay the first price asked. 

The supply of scarabs is inexhaustible. It is to be 
presumed that they are shipped by the million from 
Germany or France. The scarab is made in the shape 
of a beetle and its material is of stone or clay. The 
backs of the imitation insects exactly reproduce nature, 
but the under sides are engraved like seals with an 
immense variety of devices, and are inscribed with 
charms or texts from the "Book of the Dead." 

The scarabseid beetle was worshipped by the ancient 
Egyptians, who regarded it as an emblem of fertility 
and of the resurrection. It was the custom to place one 
under the tongue of the corpse and one over the heart. 
The beetles were also deposited in the mummy cases. 
Those sold are represented to be genuine — taken from 
the tombs and mummy cases — but not one in a thousand 
is the real thing. 

The government of Egypt does not permit any one, 
except by special permission, to disturb the sepulchres 
of the dead ; and every person found selling genuine 
scarabs, beads or other curios is arrested. Searches and 
exhumations are made by the government itself and 
whenever it comes into possession of a duplicate of any 
curio previously found in a tomb, it sells either the one 
on hand or the one found, in order to reimburse itself 
for the expense incurred. 

Egypt owes its very existence to the Nile. Should 
this river cease to flow, or be diverted from its course, 
the whole cultivated section would lapse into the barren- 
ness of the desert, by which it is bordered. In fact, only 


a circumscribed strip of land on each side of the river 
is cultivated. At some points, where canals are carried 
out from the river, these areas are enlarged, and in many 
sections the land irrigated is considerable. 

So entirely dependent is the country upon the river 
that the year is divided into three seasons — Nile, inunda- 
tion from August to November; Shitwi, from December 
to March, and Sefi, from April to July. 

The population of Egypt is estimated at about ten 
million; three-fourths are fellaheen, or peasants; the 
rest Copts, Nubians, Turks, Laventines, Armenians, 
Jews and Europeans. 

The fellah struck us as being a good and faithful 
laborer; all day long in the hot sun he will stand on the 
river bank working the shaduf, while his naked skin 
bronzes in the heat. The men wear full white cotton 
breeches and a blue cotton skirt, like the women's 
garment. A brown felt slpill cap completes the costume. 
The Shekh will wear a black cloak, a red fez with blue 
tassel, white turbans and red or yellow shoes. The 
women are attired in a long, loose-sleeved garment of 
dark-blue or black, open at the neck, and usually have a 
long veil on their heads, but not over their faces. The 
better classes, however, do wear the face veil. In all 
the cities the Egyptians wear the red, flat-topped fez. 
This is the headgear of all except the poorest, from 
Khedive to donkey-boy. 

The women of the towns wear voluminous black silk 
cloaks, which entirely envelope them, and black face 
veils with curious ornaments of brass — and sometimes 
of gold — that fit in the hollow of the nose where it joins 
the forehead. Some of the fair ones wear single, and 
some double, ornaments of this kind. We were told 
that those who wore one of these ornaments thus indi- 


cated that they were marriageable — ready, willing and 
waiting to be asked — while those who wbre the double 
ornaments had yokemates already. The class who had 
none were neither married nor desired to enter into that 
state — will you believe me, there were very few of this 
contingent ? 

Our steamer goes slowly up the the Nile, as the water 
is low, and she has to feel her way cautiously, particu- 
larly at night, lest she run her nose into a sandbank. 
Now we experience a slight jar and we know we are 
aground; but as the vessel only draws two feet of water, 
and is flat bottomed, we soon get off again. 

As we gradually ascend the breeze from the Lybian 
desert, purified by its passage over the hot sands, is delight- 
fully refreshing; and before us is spread a beautiful 
panorama of natural scenery. Here is a flock of sheep 
grazing in the verdant fields and attended by their shep- 
herd. There a drove of cattle quietly browsing or chew- 
ing the cud of content. Yonder, stretching along the 
banks, is a grove of stately palms, or a cluster of date 
trees, scintillating in the sun. Beautiful fields of wheat, 
clover and barley are waving in the breeze like rippling 
waters and we see acres of luxuriant cane shooting its 
spires heavenward to be kissed into sweetness by the sun- 

Here and there along the banks of the river are groups 
of natives in their characteristic costumes, squatting on 
the ground, working at the shaduf, or engaged in filling 
their huge water jars from the turbid, but life-giving, 
stream. Occasionally, in full view of all beholders, some 
simple-minded Egyptian appears in a state of nudity in 
the water; others are seen washing their clothes in the 
river as it meanders by their homes. The verdure of the 
fields is intense, as the rich alluvial soil produces the 


deepest green we have ever seen, "for the earth bringeth 
forth fruit of herself; first the blade, then the ear, after 
that the full corn in the ear." David must have been 
looking on such a scene when he exclaimed : "The pastures 
are clothed with flocks ; the valleys are covered with corn ; 
they shout for joy, they also sing." 

The stream is here and there dotted with the craft 
peculiar to the Nile — boats with long, tapering, pole-like 
masts and bird-wing sails. They are the most graceful 
little ships in the world, as they dip or veer in the sun, 
according to the shifting of the wind. At night these 
sails glide by like phantoms. In the day they load and 
discharge their cargoes of wheat, onions and barley; we 
noticed many freighted with chopped straw for cattle. 

Yonder, along the road that runs parallel with the 
.stream, goes a drove of camels, laden with grain, provender 
or merchandise and slowly plodding their weary way to 
some town. These ungainly, but useful, animals con- 
tinue to "carry the burdens of the Orient." They have 
been associated with the East from the beginning of time, 
and will never be supplanted by steam or electricity. 
True, these may somewhat lessen his burdens, but the 
camel in the Orient will always appear in evidence. 
Even before man was rocked in the cradle of civilization 
he was, and amidst all the wreck of matter and the crush 
of worlds he will still be there. The camel is the most 
patient of all beasts. At the command of his master he 
still piously kneels, as he has done for thousands of years, 
ever faithful and rarely refusing to bear the heavy burdens 
imposed on him. 

The sight of a caravan carries one back to the days of 
Abraham and the Patriarchs. They did not believe in 
undue haste in those days; everything was done slowly, 
quietly, deliberately; we arc even told that King Ahasuerus 
"sent letters by posts on camels." 


The trip up the Nile at night was delightful, for the 
stars shone brightly, scintillating like diamonds, and the 
full moon, lighting up the waters for miles, was brilliant 
as it appeared in a perfectly cloudless sky. 

The villages, as we passed, were wrapped in sleep, and 
the stillness, save for the noise of the steamer, was pro- 
found. Occasionally a light in some distant village could 
be seen, but nothing disturbed the quiet, save the ripple 
of the waters against the banks, or the barking of a dog 
in the distance. It was a scene alike peaceful and sooth- 
ing, gently quieting mind and heart. 

As the heavens stretched above us into boundless space, 
and the desert, in its profundity of silence, lay before 
us with all the mysteries of its wondrous past, I could 
but exclaim with the sweet singer of Israel, "When I 
consider Thy heavens, the Work of Thy fingers, the moon 
and the stars, which Thou hast ordained ; what is man 
that thou are mindful of him ? And the son of man, that 
Thou visitest him " 

We noticed that in the midst of the river, wherever the 
waters had receded sufficiently, patches of melons were 
planted, and we were told that the crop would mature in 
sixty days from the time it was put in the soil. We also 
saw many sugar factories, the largest in the world being 
on the Nile. 

In ascending the river, we passed the Island of Roda, 
the place where the daughter of Pharaoh went down to 
take her bath and discovered the infant Moses sleeping 
among the bullrushes. The exact spot was pointed out, 
but I regret to say the rushes have long since disappeared. 

Hard by is the old Nilometer, dating from 716 A. D. 
It is in the form of a well, sixteen feet square, with an 
octagonal column, inscribed with Arabic measurements, 
in the center. When the river is at its lowest point the 


kilometer covers seven ells, and when it rises, about 
fifteen ells. An ell is twenty-one and one-third inches. 

We also passed the fine palace of the Khedive. We 
likewise had pointed out to us at a distance the mountains 
beyond, which offered the road by which Moses conducted 
the children of Israel to the Red Sea. 

Many boats are kept loaded with stone to fill up weak 
spots in the river's banks. The soil is so rich and so 
lacking in clay or adhesiveness, that when the water rises 
vast inroads are made on the banks, and consequently 
there is a constant shifting of the bed of the river. The 
government lays the stone in the places w T here a sudden 
turn or bend in the river renders this necessary. 

The city of Luxor originalW was built on the side 
of the river opposite to that on which it now stands, 
a new channel having been made by this fickle stream. 
Both in loading and unloading the boats, the natives carry 
the stone on their heads in baskets. As a rule, the 
Egyptians live in small villages near the river. Their 
huts are flat-roofed and covered with straw, but shaded 
by beautiful palms, some of which grow through the roofs 
of the houses. 

Each village, no matter how small, has its little mosque 
where the faithful respond daily to the muezzin's call to 
prayer, with their faces piously turned towards Mecca. 
Mohammedans believe the world is flat and that Mecca is 
its center. Mecca is the birthplace of Mohammed and 
the site of Kaaba, their venerated shrine. 

The Kaaba is a cube-shaped building in the center of 
the Great Mosque at Mecca. It contains the sacred black 
stone, called hajar al aswud, said to have been originally 
a ruby, which came down from Heaven, but which is now 
blackened by the tears shed for sin by pilgrims. The 
black stone is in the southeast corner of the edifice and 


is the point to which all Mohammedans face during their 

Sunning himself on the banks of the Nile, apparently 
in deep cogitation as he awaits the coming of his prey to 
satisfy the wants of nature, the long-legged crane can be 
seen. The blue heron, with outstretched neck, can also 
be seen winging his flight up the river as he is disturbed 
by the approach of the boat. Solitary and alone sits the 
pelican with his solemn features and distended pouch, as 
though pondering over the inscrutable mysteries of nature. 

In many places the river's banks are honeycombed with 
holes made by the swallows and they can be seen darting 
in and out in countless numbers. In the mountainous 
section of the Nile, we saw perched upon the crags or 
circling around their summits, hundreds of eagles — 
probably the G-ier Eagle of the Bible ! 

The old-time Egyptian was not without poetic fancy. 
Observing that the lotus showed its head above water at 
sunrise and sank again at Sol's setting, he conceived the 
idea of consecrating this flower to Osiris, or the sun. 
Moore has embalmed this conception in the following : 

"The youthful day, 

"Within its twilight bower, 
Lay sweetly sleeping 

On the flush'd bosom of a lotus flower." 

Our first stopping place was at Baliana. Here we 
discovered a government dispensary. We entered and 
found amongst other liquids for sale Pabst American beer. 
We ordered a bottle, but as it was not iced we could not 
drink it. There is also a large sugar factory at this place. 

Our object in getting off here was to visit the ruins of 
Abydos, distant some eight or ten miles. In order to 
avoid, as far as possible, the heat of noonday, we decided 
to get up at 4 o'clock the next morning. On arising we 


witnessed a curious and novel performance — the scrubbing 
of the decks by the Nubians. This feat is accomplished 
with their "pedal extremeties." A wisp of straw is held 
by some occult power in the middle of the Nubian's foot, 
and is artistically and effectively manipulated. Only one 
foot is used by each man, but all work in concert, accom- 
panied by rhythmic songs and motions of the body. 

It was a gay cavalcade that started on the ride through 
the desert to the ruins of Abydos. But before we set out 
we were treated to a sight of the "Battle of the Saddles." 
The conductor of our party had the saddles for our 
donkeys on the boat, having procured them in Cairo, and 
the natives were to furnish the beasts for the trip, so the 
effort of every donkey-boy in the neighborhood the next 
morning was to secure a saddle for his particular animal, 
thereby getting a customer and "backsheesh." These boys 
rushed pell-mell over the gang-plank, and a regular battle 
ensued. One would get a grip on the pommel of a saddle 
and another would sieze on to the stirrups, while a third 
would tussle at the girth. Such a jabbering and fussing 
was never before heard or seen. 

Finally the captain, to quell the disturbance, had to call 
on the local police, who responded promptly. The police 
go armed with a cowhide or stick — the Egyptian is ruled 
entirely by the rod and the fear of the bastinado. With- 
out mercy these African cops laid their lashes on the backs 
and legs of the boys, and actually threw several of them 
overboard. Order, by these means, was finally restored, 
and the saddles apportioned out among the claimants ; but 
many of them not only had itching palms, but itching 
backs from the thrashings they had received. 

We were greeted on our entrance into the town of 
Baliana by all of the children of the village and heard 
the usual cry, "backsheesh, backsheesh." Through the 


unpaved streets we took a walk, though we noted little 
of interest, save that the houses are built of sun-burned 
brick. The tourists amused themselves by throwing 
small coins to the crowd of Arabs, and there was so much 
scrambling that the police again interfered with their 
persuasive whips, which lashed right and left, and scat- 
tered the crowd in all directions. 

The Arab policeman is a man of authority, even as was 
the Roman centurion, and exclaims, as did the latter, "I 
say unto one, go, and he goeth ; and to another, come, and 
he cometh." 

We had seventy-two on our Xile steamer and about 
sixty of these took the donkey ride. Each donkey was 
attended by a donkey-boy, who trotted along beside or 
behind his beast to keep him up and to attend to the wants 
of the rider. Without the presence of these boys behind 
or on the side the whimsical animals would have ceased 
to move. 

The donkey-boys are a sharp set. They give their 
beasts pet names calculated to please the riders. My, 
donkey, for instance, bore the euphonious name "Yankee 
Doodle" ; others were, respectively, called "America," 
"Dixie," "Jonathan," and the like. 

We started from Beliana just as the sun rose over the 
hills bounding the deserts of Arabia and caused the dew- 
drops to scintillate like clusters of diamonds. The birds 
were caroling in the fields and our lungs expanded under 
the keen morning air. We passed through a, beautiful 
valley. The camels were being loaded, kneeling obediently 
to receive their burdens for the day, and the shepherds 
were driving their flocks afield. We could see the farm 
laborers, both men and women, bestirring themselves for 
the duties that lay before them. Verily, our eyes gazed 
on an animated scene — one of pastoral beauty and life. 
It was like nature awakening from her sleep. 


"The Young Voyager" came in contact with one of the 
Arab fortune tellers, and she told him he would attain 
wealth, live to be eighty-two and become the father of 
six sons and three daughters. Naturally he was much 
pleased with the tale she told. 

In our ride across the desert to Abydos, the gentleman 
from St. Louis led the van. He rode without stirrups, 
and when the donkey trotted he held on to the crupper 
with one hand and to the mane of the beast with the other. 
His head made involuntary courtesies and bows of acknow- 
ledgement to all passers, his body swaying from side to 
side, first on the donkey's neck and then behind the 
saddle — 

"Away went Bullock: who but he? his fame soon spread around, 
He carries weight; he rides a race! 'tis for a thousand pound." 

So all gave him free passage, and he was unanimously 
conceded to be the most polite man of the party, even 
excepting Perley, the invincible ; but he remarked the next 
day that he felt like one of the martyrs who had been 
racked by the tortures of the Inquisition. 

Next came "The Young Voyager," who sat his donkey 
with an uncertain poise. He had provided himself with 
a new native straw hat, "and he had bound a snow-white 
plume upon his gallant crest" in the shape of a beautiful 
silk scarf, which, like the oriflame on the helmet of Henry 
of Navarre at Ivry, floated on the breeze and rippled in 
the wind. 

Then followed Perley, who bestrode a very small 
animal, so that his feet were constantly scraping the 
ground, and he came near ruining his patent leathers. 
Perley 's donkey was disposed to buck, but Perley locked 
his long legs under him and the little beast could not dis- 
lodge his rider. As usual, Perley wandered off and got 


lost from the party, so we had to threaten to bell him. 
Some one suggested that he had probably stopped to count 
his postals, a duty he religiously performed several times 
a day. 

The Judge and this chronicler rode well to the front, 
and here the accident, related in the beginning of these 
reminiscences, befell us. 

In our party were many pretty girls who sat their 
donkeys gracefully and many gentlemen who rode 
cavalierly. There was one fat lady who could only mount 
from a wall or block. I shall never forget the pathetic 
look in the eyes of her donkey, as she first assayed to get 
on his back. The poor brute, as he felt her weight, turned 
his eyes as much as to say, "Have I this burden to carry ?" 
The fat lady was going on quite merrily when the girth 
broke and. she went down in a confused heap. But she 
mounted again and rode the balance of the way chaperoned 
on either side by an Arab. If she started to slide off on 
the right-hand side, she was held on by her right bower, 
while if she showed a tendency to go to the left she was 
supported by her left bower. By common consent the 
fat lady was given the right of way, and whenever she 
appeared the cavalcade veered over to one side of the 
road to admit her passage. 

On the way we encountered a caravan of camels loaded 
with hay, and the huge mass took up the entire roadway. 
We had to dismount and take our donkeys down hill or 
get on the pile of stones by the highway until the caravan 
passed, else we would have been swept away as with a 
besom of destruction. 

The first ruin we entered at Abydos was the Temple of 
Seti I. It is considered one of the most beautiful in 
Egypt, as it is built of fine white limestone. At one time 
it was entirely buried in the sand, but it has been exca- 


vated. The pylon and walls have almost disappeared, 
but there are some beautifully sculptured pillars. On 
the walls there are pictures representing Osiris, Isis and 
Seti I. 

Passing through the entrance we came to a hall with 
twenty-four sandstone columns. On the walls were many 
curious carvings and sculptures peculiar to Egyptian art. 
The vaulted roofs of the finely decorated chambers proved 
interesting, the vault being of solid blocks. Here we 
saw the Tablet of Abydos, containing a list of seventy-six 

Many of the pictures sculptured on the walls are in a 
good state of preservation. Their colors are vivid, not- 
withstanding the lapse of time, the throes of earthquakes, 
the vandalism of enemies and the disintegration caused 
by the elements. These temples were built 5,000 or 6,000 
years B. C. 

The next temple we visited was that of Rameses II., 
but we found very little of it standing. Some of the 
reliefs that survive, however, are very fine. In fact, there 
are acres of these ruins that possess great interest for the 
antiquary and the archaeologist. 

The ancient Egyptians had a book which they held 
just as sacred as we do our Bible. They called it the 
"Book of the Dead." From this they extract texts and 
inscriptions, which they placed on their tombs, mummy 
cases, monuments and temples. Their religion was an 
elaborate scheme of psychology. The human entity was 
conceived as consisting of seven different parts, of which 
the actual body was one, and upon the preservation of 
which, in some occult way, depended the ultimate reunion 
of the whole. It was for this reason that such care was 
taken to preserve the bodies of the departed from corrup- 
tion and that they were made into mummies and hidden 


away carefully in tombs and pyramids. The destruction 
of the mummy might mean incompleteness of eternal 
being. The apathy and unconcern of the old-time 
Egyptian would seem to indicate that their aim in life 
was expressed in the words — 

"Death is the end of life; ah, why 
Should life all labour be? 
Let us alone." 

The cherished doctrine was the metempsychosis; the 
soul, on leaving the body, was supposed to become a 
wandering spirit, entering into some bird of the air, beast 
of the field, or fish of the sea, and waiting for a regenera- 
tion in the natural body. This belief inculcated a pious 
regard for the security and preservation of the dead, and 
caused them to deify animals, reptiles and insects. 

The Mohammedan faith consists of six articles, which 
constitute its creed — Belief in God, in His Angels, in His 
Scriptures, in His Prophets, in the Resurrection, Day of 
Judgment and Eternal Life, and Predestination. Among 
the believers the shibboleth is "Allah is God and Moham- 
med is His Prophet." The four practices required by 
their religion are prayer, alms, fasting and the pilgrimage 
to Mecca. 

On the walls of some of the tombs are pictured pastoral 
and rural scenes — the reaping of wheat, the treading out 
of the corn ; the winnowing, measuring and storing of the 
grain. The inscriptions give little songs of the laborers. 
One has been interpreted thus: 

"Hie along oxen, 

Tread the corn faster! 
The straw for yourselves, 
The grain for the Master." 



The people of Egypt still use the antiquated and cum- 
bersome wooden plow drawn by oxen and in some instances 
bj camels; but the ancient method of driving a flock of 
sheep over the fields to trample in the grain is not now 
in vogue. 

When I looked upon these and similar ruins and then 
saw the Egyptian of to-day — steeped in ignorance and 
grovelling in poverty — I asked myself the question : "Can 
these people be the lineal descendants of those who not 
only wrought such grand and imposing structures, but 
were adepts in sculpture and skilled in science ; the 
builders of those grand pyramids that have excited the 
interest and the wonder of the world ; the masters of a 
civilization that flourished when the world was in its 
infancy V* 

And so, too, when I stood on the Acropolis at Athens, 
amid its acres of desolation — its sunken columns, its 
fallen pilasters, its ruined entablatures, its crumbling 
friezes, its broken cornices and its grass-grown archi- 
traves — the following questions suggested themselves : 
"Can the present people of Greece be the children of the 
heroes of Thermoplylae, Marathon and Salamis? Could 
their ancestors have been the masters of eloquence, the 
apotheses of liberty, the founders of classic art — the 
models of all time?" 

As I reflected on the answers the breeze from over the 
blue iEgean seemed to whisper in accents soft and low — 

"Fair Greece! sad relic of departed worth!" 

But to return to my subject — our rrip up the Nile was 
pleasant in every sense and our comparatively small com- 
pany very sociable, while the officers of the boat, who 
were Scotch, proved cordial and genial. I shall never 
forget the delightful time we had one night, when we 


were entertained with song and music by the surgeon of 
the vessel and a coterie of congenial spirits. At the end 
of the evening we joined hands and all sang a Auld Lang 
Syne" with a pathos and tenderness long to be remem- 
bered. Although we were comparative strangers, when 
we came to the lines — 

"And here's a hand, my trusty fiere, 
And gie's a hand o' thine," 

we all felt it was a seal of real friendship. 

Somehow we had always associated the crocodile with 
the Nile. Great was our surprise and disappointment, 
therefore, in not seeing any of these ungainly creatures 
sunning themselves on the banks or disporting themselves 
in the waters. Alas ! in our trip of four hundred and 
fifty miles we did not see a single crocodile. The intro- 
duction of the steamboat has driven them away, but we 
were told some could be found beyond the cataracts. 

In nearly every village we passed we noticed pigeon- 
cots, built of mud in the shape of sugar loaves and white- 
washed. Pigeons form an important item in the way of 
food in Egypt, and pigeon-pie is regarded as quite a dish 
with the natives. 

The service and fare on the Victoria were far better 
than on the Arabic, and the trip was a delightful rest 
after our return from Abydos. 

The immense quantity of stone that is being brought 
from the quarries by the boats or is being transported on 
the backs of camels for the strengthening of the river's 
banks and the building of dykes; the large number of 
small boats traversing the Nile loaded with cotton, cane, 
sugar, beans, wheat and other products ; the tall chimneys 
of many large sugar factories silhouetted against the 
horizon along the banks of the stream, the whistle of 


locomotives and swift-passing trains, all indicate that 
Egypt is being moved by a new inspiration and is arousing 
herself from the lethargy of ages. Who knows? She 
may yet* rehabilitate herself in the garments of a new 
era and of a living civilization. 

If the old Pharaohs could come back and see the 
changes already wrought, and still going on, they would 
open their eyes with bewildered astonishment. 

At the different stopping places the fakirs besieged us 
with all sorts of goods. Their offerings at Baliana were 
chiefly white shawls with gilt spangles, for which they 
wanted a pound, but willingly took half this sum if it 
was tendered. 

After leaving Baliana we saw on one side very high 
mountains honeycombed with tombs, whilst on the oppo- 
site side were great stretches of sand. Farther up, we 
passed a unique town, evidently a monument to departed 
spirits, as it was built entirely of empty jugs and bottles. 
This was a curious sight, as the Moslems, as a rule, do 
not drink. It is against their religion, and they are the 
most religious of all people. Then, too, they are too 
poor to drink, even if they wish to. Moreover, they 
could not in a reasonable time empty enough jugs and 
bottles to build such a town. Taking all these things 
into consideration, we concluded that the whole of Egypt 
probably poured out its libations to build this town. 

Our next stop was at Luxor, whence we visited 
Karnack. This is not a temple, but a city of temples, 
palaces, obelisks and immense statues. It is a growth of 
many centuries. The vast array of monstrous columns 
reminds one of the cathedral like isles of some great and 
magnificent forest. Karnack surpasses anything of the 
kind on earth, and when in its original condition the 
Great Hall must have been incomparable in its grandeur 
and majestic proportions. 


Luxor is on the east bank of the Nile ; it is a town of 
about ten thousand inhabitants. Here are to be seen 
the remnants of a temple of Rameses III., two obelisks, 
a pylon and the colossi. The entire structure originally 
was about eight hundred and fifty feet long and one 
hundred and eighty feet wide; only two of the six statues 
which stood in front of the temple remain. 

Karnack contains the most wonderful pile of ruins 
imaginable. They seem to have been a series of con- 
nected buildings a mile long, and one can only conceive 
of their former grandeur by what remains. The Temple 
of Ammon has a pylon, or corner tower, three ' hundred 
and seventy-two feet wide and one hundred and forty-two 
high. The second pylon contains the Triumphal Monu- 
ment of Sheshon I. (the Shishak of I. Kings, xiv v 25-26, 
and II. Chronicles, xn., 2, 4, 9), celebrating his victory 
over Rehoboam and his removal of the treasures from 
the Temple of Jerusalem. 

The Great Hypostayle Hall is a stupendous structure, 
338 by 170 feet. Its roof is supported by one hundred 
and thirty-four columns, arranged in sixteen rows, each 
of the central columns being eighty feet in height. The 
pillars and walls are covered with inscriptions and reliefs, 
many of them retaining the original ■ coloring. Then 
there is another pylon and two obelisks and also avenues 
of sphinxes, to say nothing of other temples and columns 
too numerous to mention. All are elaborately carved. 
The stone was obtained at Assuan, only a short distance 
away, where there are immense quarries. 

We next visited the remains of the famous city of 
Thebes, still guarded by the colossal statues of Memnon, 
which stand before the ruined temple of the King. Here 
they have stood since 1500 B. C, but now they are much 
weather-beaten and broken by earthquakes and vandalism. 


They are about sixty feet high. The one to the north is 
the faim-d vocal Memnon, but when the rising sun kisses 
his face his lips are silent and no longer emit those vocal 
sounds with which, according to tradition, he was wont 
to greet the great luminary. Behind the statues rise 
cliffs honeycombed with tombs. 

Of the hundred gates, about which the city once vaunted 
herself, not one stands to-day — they are all closed by the 
debris of her former grandeur and the shifting sands of 
Lybian desert. There remain only the remnants of one 
or two of the magnificent temples, with columns and 
pilasters half buried in the sand as if to accentuate the 
city's desolation and point out her sepulchre. 

Thebes, the grandest city of ancient times, was twenty- 
three miles in circumference and extended beyond the 
Valley of the Nile to the base of the mountains of Arabia 
and Africa. It was connected with Luxor and Karnack 
by avenues of sphinxes ^in fact, this territory was all one 
vast city. The whole is now strewn with the remains of 
temples, obelisks, columns and pyramids. As has been 
said by an eminent traveler, "the skeletons of giant 
temples are standing in the unwatered sands, in solitude 
and silence. They are neither gray nor blackened ; there 
is no lichen or moss ; no rank grass or mantling ivy to 
robe them and conceal their deformities. Like the bones 
of man, they seem to whiten under the sun of the desert." 
The prophecy of Ezekiel has been literally fulfilled — "I 
will destroy the idols, and I will cause their images to 
cease, and there shall be no more a prince of the land of 
Egypt." This once magnificent city was destroyed by 
the Persians under Cambyses. 

We also visited the Tombs of the Kings — another 
donkey ride ; in fact, we by now had become expert riders. 
These tombs are several miles from the Nile. To reach 




them one crosses a section of the desert and enters a 
winding, rocky valley, a wierd and desolate place. The 
old-time Kings showed no spirit of accommodation to 
future travelers in thus entombing themselves in such 
out-of-the-way places. This particular place in the 
Nubian mountains was selected by the Kings of the 
nineteenth and twentieth dynasties for their sepulture. 
There are supposed to be forty tombs in all, but only 
twenty-five are accessible, and only eleven worth seeing, 
as in many cases one is a reduplication of the other. 

We visited the tomb of Seti I. ; its sculpture and color- 
ing are very fine, and as the place is lighted up with 
electric lights it . presents a splendid appearance. This 
tomb is made in the side of the mountain in the living 
rock. It penetrates 330 feet into the rock and consists 
of seventeen chambers, passages and staircases. The 
scenes depicted on the walls and ceilings are of a religious 
character. The chambers are entered by steps descending 
by a passage. Each chamber is beautifully ornamented 
by relief work, giving scenes and texts from sacred books. 
The tomb building was the work of the Kings of Egypt. 
It was a regal fad with them. When one ascended his 
throne he forthwith began to build his mausoleum and 
the work on it never ceased until his death. Each 
monarch vied with his predecessor in trying to make his 
tomb more beautiful and grander than the one that had 
gone before. Their constant effort, so far as a resting 
place was concerned, was to join— 

"The innumerable caravan that moves 
To the pale realms of shade, where each shall take 
His chamber in the silent halls of death." 

At one period of Egypt's history the Kings built 
pyramids, the largest structure indicating the longest 


reign. The smaller the pyramid, the shorter the reign. 
But the very splendor these monarchs so lavishly displayed 
in the ornamentation and enriching of their monuments, 
was the cause of their memorials being disturbed and 
their sarcophagi plundered. 

Only one royal mummy remains in these tombs, and 
access to it is not allowed. It can be seen, but not 
touched. This mummy represents the remains of Amen- 
hetep II., just as he was placed on the day of his entomb- 
ment. The lids of the fine sarcophagus and the coffin 
have been removed, and the mummy, decorated with the 
wreathes of flowers which have lasted three thousand 
years, may be looked upon from above. 

There is nothing of the kind we have ever seen that 
is at all comparable with the tombs, temples and pyramids 
of Egypt. 

At Luxor we were beset by a small army of curio sellers. 
They offered rings, scarabs, beads, images, mummy hands 
and feet ; in fact, a small museum could have been sup- 
plied by these fakirs: The ever-curious Perley bought 
the mummied hand of some poor fellow who had ceased 
to have any use for it thousands of years ago. Perley 
asserted that it was a renewal of an old acquaintance. 

Whole mummies were offered for sale, and as I looked 
upon the sightless eye sockets and the fleshless bones, I 
could but apostrophize these remains of humanity thus — 

"And thou hast walked about (how strange a story!) 
In Thebes' streets, three thousand years ago, 
When the Memnonium was in all its glory, 
And time had not begun to overthrow 
Those temples, palaces and piles stupendous, 
Of which the very ruins are tremendous." 

After buying all the curios we cared for we were 
approached by a fakir with a beautiful string of beads. 


We told him we did not want the beads, but he remained 

"Well, what do you ask for them?" we asked. 
"Twenty-five dollars," was the reply. We turned away 
with disgust. "How much you give ?" he asked. To 
get rid of him we replied, "We'll give you one shilling." 
"All right," was the reply, and so we bought for twenty- 
five cents what was priced at twenty-five dollars. 

Another fakir came up with a fine scarab, apparently 
a genuine antique, and like one for which a certain mem- 
ber of our party had given several dollars. "How much 
you give for this genuine scarab?" asked the fakir? 
"Don't want it; have plenty." Still insistent. "What 
do you ask for it?" we inquired. "Five dollars; worth 
ten," was the reply. W T e got in our carriage to leave, 
when up the fellow came again and offered it for twenty- 
five cents. To get rid of him we said, "Will give you 
one cigarette for it." And, lo ! he handed it over. These 
fellows always ask one price, but are prepared on short 
notice to take what they can get. 

On our trip to the Tombs of the Kings we had to cross 
the Nile. The boats could not go within several yards 
of the shore, so each of us had to get on the back of an 
Arab and be thus carried to terra firma. The ladies were 
borne in the arms of the boatmen. Our trip on donkeys 
to the tombs was pleasant, but it was very hot on our 
return and the reflection of the sun was painful to the eye. 
Perley got lost again, and we saw no more of him until 
after our return. "The Young Voyager" and this writer 
also got separated from the party and struck out for the 
river. When within a mile of the Nile we encountered 
a violent sand-storm. We could not see and could hardly 
breathe, so thick was the sand, so we decided to let our 
donkeys find the way, which they did, to our great relief. 


Getting into our boats to cross over, we found the water 
very rough, the waves high and the spray dashing over 
the craft. Under the circumstances, we concluded that 
we had missed perishing in the desert to be capsized and 
drowned in the Nile. And, to tell the truth, if we had 
gone much farther we assuredly would have had a mishap ; 
as it was, we were saved by the skin of our teeth. 

The natives are a patient race. When not begging for 
"backsheesh" — there are many who do not beg — they sit 
quietly on the ground a la Turk. They have a sad, 
melancholic cast of countenance and rarely smile. The 
children, I believe, are the most patient on earth. It is 
very seldom that one hears them cry. They will sit all 
day, their faces covered with flies, without a whimper. 

On our return to Cairo from Luxor we noticed that, in 
the suburbs of the city, the people deposit their refuse on 
the tops of their houses, whence it is liberally distributed 
among their neighbors by the winds of the desert. Many 
of the houses are covered with straw and twigs. 

Of course, while at Cairo, we went out to see the Sphinx 
and the pyramids, among others, the famous Cheops, 
the largest the grandest, and in point of age, the father 
of them all. 

The genus camelns is divided into two species — the 
Arabian and the Bactrain. The first-mentioned wears 
only one hump, while the latter is distinguished by two. 
We had the pleasure (?) of riding the Arabian animal. 
Charles Dudley Warner says of this beast: 

"The long bended neck apes humanity, but the super- 
cilious nose in the air expresses perfect contempt for all 
modern life. The contrast of this haughty 'stuck-up- 
ativeness' with the royal ugliness of the kindly brute, is 
both awe-inspiring and amusing. JSTo human royal 
family dare be uglier than the camel. He is a mass of 


bones, faded tufts, humps, lumps, splay- joints and callo- 
sites. His tail is a ridiculous wisp, and a failure as an 
ornament or a fly-brush. His feet are simply big sponges. 
For skin covering he has patches of old buffalo robes, 
faded with the hair worn off. His voice is more disagree- 
able than his appearance. His gait moves every muscle 
like an ague. 

"And yet this ungainly creature carries his head in 
the air, and regards the world out of his great brown eyes, 
with disdain. The Sphinx is not more placid. He 
reminds one of a pyramid. He has a resemblance to a 
palm tree. It is impossible to make an Egyptian picture 
without him. What a Hapsburg lip he has? Ancient, 
royal. The very poise of his head says plainly: 'I have 
come out of the dim past, before history was ; the deluge 
did not touch me ; I saw Menes come and go ; I helped 
Shoofoo build the great pyramid; I knew Egypt when it 
hadn't an obelisk, nor a temple ; I watched the slow build- 
ing of the pyramid at Sakkara. Did I not transport the 
fathers of your race across the desert? There are three 
of us — the date-palm, the pyramid and myself. Every- 
thing else is modern. Go to.' " 

To our other experiences we here added that of camel 
riding, and let me remark that the modus operandi is 
unique and peculiar. The patient and faithful beast, 
at the command of his driver, unhinges his forelegs and 
then unlimbers his hindquarters. You are thereupon 
invited to mount under protest from the camel in tones 
like the gurgling or babbling of many waters. You 
bestride the beast; he rises, ponderously on his forefeet 
and throws you over on his tail ; about the time you are 
on the point of turning a backward somersault he clumsily 
lifts up his hind legs and precipitates you over his head. 
Just as you are about to drop between his ears he gives 




a timely and thoughtful shake that settles you in the 
saddle ; he . then strikes out with his right foot, which 
makes you think you are about to bite the dust in that 
direction; next he ambles with his left, which brings you 
back to your first position. He then "jollies" you back- 
ward and forward, sidewise and otherwise — particularly 
otherwise — circles, tangents and curvatures all get mixed 
together, until you can't tell where you are or whither 
you are going; but the real article of fun begins when he 
starts to trot. Then you shut your eyes and trust to fate, 
holding on to the pommel of your saddle until he stops, 
when you motion to the driver that you have had enough 
and do not care to play circus any longer. The driver 
now commands the obedient beast to unhinge himself for 
your descent and you get off profoundly thankful to be 
once more on terra flrma. Thus ends your experience in 
camel riding, if you are wise. If you avoid the expe- 
rience you are unwise. 

On your arrival at the base of old Cheops you are 
immediately surrounded and taken in charge by the 
lineal descendants of the Forty Thieves, whose record is 
given in the Arabian Nights. They proceed to pull you 
first one way and then another, talking in incomprehen- 
sible jargon equal to the confusion of tongues at the Tower 
of Babel, until you hardly know your right hand from 
your left. You protest mildly at first, but this has no 
effect; you assert yourself more positively but in vain; 
then your ire rises, and you consign the whole gang to 
a place supposed to be warmer than the seven times 
heated furnace, in which Shadrach, Meshach and Abed- 
nego were immured, but without effect. We are assured, 
however, by the gentleman from St. Louis that nothing 
operates on the Arab so effectively as to tell them in plain 
Anglo-Saxon "to go to h — ," delivered in a strong, 


vigorous manner. As the gentleman from St. Louis is 
a man of considerable age and experience he ought to 

Finally, if you wish to ascend to the top of the vast 
pile of stone you designate five of the "forty thieves" by 
pointing them out and then commence the ascent. Two 
pull at each arm ; two place your feet in position and the 
fifth shoves you in the back. The stones over which you 
climb are each about four feet high, and when you get to 
the top every muscle, sinew and nerve is strained and 
drawn to its utmost tension, and you sink down in an 
exhausted condition. 

When you descend, all five of these same brigands 
pull your leg for "backsheesh" until you cry out against 
an insatiable extortion that knows no cessation, except in 
the complete depletion of your pocket-book. 

The road by which you approach the pyramids and 
Sphinx is a beautiful drive. When you are within two 
or three miles of Cheops you think you are quite near, 
and when you believe you can almost touch it, it is still 
some distance away. You cannot grasp its vast size and 
dimensions until you look skyward and see the tourists 
crawling up its surface like ants. Or, if you are on 
pyramid, you look down where men and Women appear 
like pigmies and donkeys like insects. 

We had with us a jolly, good fellow, the Rev. S. D. 
Bartle, a regular shouting Methodist of the old school, 
weighing about 225 pounds, and from the far-away State 
of Iowa. On account of his extraordinary size the "forty 
thieves" required pay for an extra man. On the whole, 
it is to be doubted whether the demand was inequitable. 
This extra man had a rope around the parson and under 
his arms, and he would hold back, so that when the two 
who had hold of the minister's hand pulled forward the 


unhappy trayeler was between two fires. Indeed, he was 
at times almost pulled off his feet. Brother Bartle made 
a picture never to be forgotten, and caused a great deal 
of laughter ; but it was somewhat on the order of the boys 
and the frogs. 

When the parson reached the bottom, we asked him 
how he enjoyed the trip. With that broad and expansive 
smile of his, he replied: "It was fun, and I laughed 
myself sore, but my legs are the 'sorest' from the stretch- 
ing they got on the high steps." 

The descent into the interior of the mammoth pyramid 
is attended by equal horrors and dangers — perhaps even 
greater. Instead of being pulled upward you are plunged 
downward into real Egyptian darkness — not your ordi- 
nary twilight or even the sombre shades of midnight, but 
a darkness that can be felt — a remnant of that gloom that 
spread over this ancient domain at the command of Moses 
in the days of Pharaoh. Then, amidst the obscurity of 
centuries and the silence of countless eons, you are ushered 
into the very center of this dismal charnel house, and are 
nearly smothered with the dust of ages and the shifting 
sands of the restless desert. Even though you be coura- 
geous, you fear lest you may never see daylight again. 

The passages are very narrow and your discomforts 
are intensified by the close proximity of your Arab guides 
who freely breathe and liberally exhale garlic in the most 
generous and concentrated form. This, combined with 
the hideously obvious fact that they probably have not 
had a bath for years, makes the effluvia almost suffocating 
and unendurable. 

Amidst dampness and darkness you flounder along the 
stifling passageways until you emerge again to sunlight — 
God-given sunlight — with feelings of profound and last- 
ing thankfulness. 


Cheops has a height of 451 feet (originally 483, but 
thousands of tons of stone have been taken from the top 
and sides to build mosques and other structures in Cairo) 
and a length of 750 feet, with cubic contents of 3,000,000 
cubic yards. The Titanic structure covers an area of 
about thirteen acres. According to Herodotus 100,000 
men were occupied twenty years in its construction. 

It has been estimated by a French engineer that there 
is stone enough in this pyramid to build around the 
whole of France a wall one foot thick and five feet high. 
We think it very possible this is entirely correct. 

A short distance from mighty and magnificent Cheops 
stands the mysterious Sphinx with its inscrutable features. 
Its sightless eyes have for centuries looked out upon the 
barren sands of the desert and have witnessed the rise 
and fall of empires, kingdoms, dynasties and religions. 
This mysterious monument has many times been covered 
by the restless waves of the Great Sahara, to be again and 
again exhumed from the sands. The Sphinx of Gizeh 
represents a male deity, having the body of a lion and 
the head of a man. It is said to prefigure the union of 
intelligence and power. 

The Sphinx was hewn out of the solid rock and is 
sixty-six feet high. Its measurements are: 


Length of body 150 

Length of paws 50 

Length of head 30 

Width of mouth 7% 

Width of face 14 

Height of ear 4 x h 

From crown to base 70 

It has been greatly mutilated, but still preserves much 
of its nobility and majesty. Between its paws is an altar, 
and on its breast is a memorial statue of Thutmosis IV., 




placed there because the King, prompted by a dream, 
caused the Sphinx to be freed from the drifting sand of 
the desert. 

John L. Stoddard, in his lectures on Egypt, says: 
To-day the Sphinx appears as calm and imperturbable 
as it did six thousand years ago. It is probably the oldest 
relic of human workmanship that the world knows — the 
silent witness of the greatest fortunes and the greatest 
calamities of time. Its eyes, wide open and fixed, have 
gazed dreamily out over the drifting sands, while empires, 
dynasties, religions and entire races have risen and passed 
away. If its stony lips could speak, they might truth- 
fully utter the words, 'Before Abraham was, I am.' It 
was, indeed, probably two thousand years old when 
Abraham was born. It is the antiquity of the Sphinx 
which thrills us as we look upon it, for in itself it has no 
charms. The desert's waves have risen to its breast, as 
if to wrap the monster in a winding sheet of gold. The 
face and head have been mutilated by Moslem fanatics. 
The mouth, the beauty c of whose lips was once admired, 
is now expressionless. Yet grand in its loneliness — 
veiled in the mystery of unnumbered ages — this relic of 
Egyptian antiquity stands solemn and silent in the 
presence of the awful desert — a symbol of eternity. Here 
it disputes with time the empire of the past, forever 
gazing on and on into a future which will still be distant 
when we, like all who have preceded us and looked upon 
its face, have lived our little lives and disappeared." 

"O, sleepless Sphinx! 
Thy sadly patient eyes 

Thus mutely gazing o'er the shifting sands, 
Have watched earth's countless dynasties arise, 
Stalk forth like spectres waving gory hands, 
Then fade away with scarce a lasting trace 
To mark the secret of their dwelling place: 
O, sleepless Sphinx!" 


We found Cairo a beautiful city — the Paris of the 
Orient, with its modern improvements, its gay throngs, 
its delightful climate, its splendid hostelries and its lively 
streets. It is an up-to-date city, and yet it is a city of 
wonderful contrasts ; with over half a million inhabitants, 
all nationalities and types may be found within its limits. 
English soldiers, Arab lancers, Soudanese infantry and 
Egyptian cavalry — all in their varied uniforms — may be 
seen on the streets, and they add not a little to the 
picturesque appearance of this pleasant and fascinating 

Cairo is nothing if not cosmopolitan. It is curious to 
see the old and the new order of things side by side — one 
the type of centuries long past ; the other of the methods 
of to-day. 

Along the river one sees the swift-moving railway train, 
while in the distance plods a caravan of camels — age and 
youth side by side. In the streets may be seen the patient 
ox moving slowly and steadily as of old, as there shoots 
by him the lightning-like electric car. Here comes an 
Arab in his little donkey cart; there goes a foreigner in 
his rapid automobile. 

Many fine horses and carriages are to be noted in Cairo. 
On several occasions we saw the Khedive, who is quite 
popular, behind a spanking pair of bays. Occasionally 
may be sighted some rich pasha with his Nubian sais, or 
runner, who goes before the horse or carriage, no matter 
how fast the animals move, and shouts for the people to 
clear the way. We were told that these runners never 
live over fifteen years at this kind of work, the excessive 
exertion producing valvular disease of the heart. 

Many curious street scenes attract the eye — snake 
charmers, Egyptian jugglers, organ grinders with their 
monkeys and boy acrobats, who go before you on the side- 


walk and turn somersaults, which are accompanied by the 
usual request for "backsheesh." Among those seeking 
money may also be seen the flower venders, the sellers of 
postal cards and the peddlers of ostrich feathers, walking 
canes, beads, curios, etc. Bread is offered for sale on the 
street corners and carried about the streets on the head. 

At Cairo, one of our party was importuned by a Persian 
to give him some medicine — the Arabs and Persians think 
all Americans are physicians or understand the occult 
science of the healing art. "What is the matter with 
you?" asked our friend. (This was a fine chance for 
Perley, but he had been lost for an hour.) The Persian 
replied that he had four wives, and they required a good 
deal of attention. He said he felt weak and wanted 
something to strengthen him. Our friend was unable to 
give him anything except his sympathy. 

The old slave market still stands in the center of the 
city, but slaves are no longer offered for sale within its 
portals. When slavery existed the slaves were branded 
like cattle. We had a waiter at our table — an intelligent- 
looking African — who had three marks on each cheek 
and two just under the temples. He had been branded 
with a hot iron to indicate his ownership. 

We were invited to a Greek Masonic Lodge where all 
the work was done in Arabic — it was all Greek to us. 
Here we were struck with a custom we had never before 
seen in a Masonic Lodge. When the incoming stationed 
officers were installed, the kiss of brotherly love and 
affection was bestowed by the outgoing officers. Kisses 
were bestowed on both cheeks. 

Whilst we could not understand the language spoken, 
we could recognize the work by the old landmarks. The 
brethren who attended were admitted without personal 
examination on being vouched for by me. After the 


lodge closed a fine banquet at one of the hotels was served 
and mnch cordiality was shown, the talking being done 
through an interpreter. 

About forty members of our Masonic Association, with 
their ladies, were invited by a Copt (a Mason) to his 
house at Helowan, some fifteen miles from Cairo and a 
mile or two from the Nile. It is a very pleasant little 
town and many persons of means live there. The Khedive 
also has a summer residence at Helowan. 

This Copt who entertained us is the most prominent 
Mason in Egypt. He is the author of several works, 
written in Arabic, copies of which he kindly presented 
to Brother McAtee, of Philadelphia, who intends to devote 
the balance of his life — if he can find time — to decipher- 
ing the contents of these interesting books. Our erstwhile 
host is also the editor of a monthly magazine devoted to 

The party went by train and were met and escorted 
to the Copt's house and garden, where orange, fig, almond, 
apricot and other trees,* as well as a great variety of 
flowers, abounded. A flowing fountain with electric 
lights in its center added novelty and beauty to the scene. 
The guests were escorted from their host's house to the 
lodge room, a neat, respectable stone building, with lodge, 
preparation, banquet and clothing rooms. The lodge was 
opened with the Brother Copt, Markarius Bey (a Chris- 
tian), presiding as W. M. The S. W. was a Moham- 
medan ; the J. W. a Jew, and the Treasurer a Persian. 
Our party was welcomed in Arabic by the master. His 
speech was translated so we could understand it. 

Brother McAtee replied in English, which was trans- 
lated into Arabic, so the local Masons could know our 
reply. This was, doubtless, a combination that never 
before met in this life — Christians, Jews, Mohammedans, 


Turks, Nubians, Abyssinians, French and Americans; all 
differing in religious faith and creeds, but all bound 
together by a common tie. 

This same hospitable Masonic brother also invited four 
of us to the theatre in Cairo. The performance was in 
Arabic, and we could only interpret the play by the actions 
and motions of the dramatis personam. It was a love 
tragedy, and the forlorn lover sang most dolefully to the 
orb of night for fully an hour. Never before had we 
listened to such sad notes. We were not "sooth'd with 
the soft notes warbling in the wind," but enured "to 
thick-ey'd musing and curs' d melancholy.'" 

The unmelodious melody of that wailing song will ever 
run like a sombre thread through our memory. It 
reminded us of a dog baying the moon. That actor 
ought to have been taken out and ducked, if not shot. 
An American audience would have hissed him off the 
stage in ten minutes; but the Egyptian audience thought 
the lugubrious fellow's "stunt" was fine, and when the 
rascal dwelt for five minutes on the most doleful of his 
notes, like the long-drawn-out howl of some moon-struck 
cur, they went mad, and encored him. And there we sat 
and had to hear it over again. 

When the actor got to anything particularly pathetic, 
a sympathetic O ! O ! O ! would run through the crowd, 
and we were reminded of the cooing of a turtle dove. 
Occasionally this non-impassioned "artist" would be 
encouraged by hand clappings from the audience. Then 
he would grow even more lugubrious. We never listened 
to such a performance before, and we hope never to be 
afflicted again in a similar manner. We could not, in 
deference to our entertainers, get up and leave, so we 
had to grin and endure it. The only relief we had was 
when our brother occasionally ordered beer and cigars. 


There were present fifty or seventy-five Mohammdan 
ladies from the various harems, attended by the eunuchs. 
The boxes they occupied were covered with iron bars or 
grills, so closely put together that the women's features 
could not be discerned. They could see, but could not 
be seen by the audience. Now and then we could catch 
the glint of a bright eye, the sparkle of a gem, the shimmer 
of a jewel, or see the light from their cigarettes and a 
puff of smoke from their ruby lips. 

"The Young Voyager" radiated his most seductive 
smile, made goo-goo eyes, and said he thought he saw a 
return smile, but the birds were caged. Perley got much 
excited (not lost this time) and became so greatly 
interested that he made inquiry of our entertainer if he 
could not "get behind the scenes ?" On being informed 
that this was impossible, he took his opera glasses and 
began to ogle so persistently that he was informed he 
might excite the ire of the lords of these ladies if he kept 
it up ; so he fell quietly to sleep and snored during the 
balance of the performance. The play had lost all 
interest to him. I would like to have joined him in the 
land of dreams, but I felt bound to do the honors to our 
brother, so we stuck out the five acts. The tiresomeness 
of the play was only exceeded by a performance we once 
witnessed at a Chinese theatre in San Francisco. 

There are some splendid drives in and about Cairo, 
with magnificent rows of trees on each side of the carriage- 
ways. We visited the zoological gardens and found quite 
an interesting display. 

The poorer classes have a curious way of carrying 
their children seated astraddle the left shoulder, the 
child holding on the head of its mother. 

One of the centers of interest in Cairo is the beautiful 
Esbekiya Square; it is a charming pleasure ground filled 


with flowers, shrubbery, trees, lakes and ponds. Around 
it cluster many of the principal buildings of Cairo. 

Perley arid the writer got lost one night and wandered 
around the park's many sides for about one hour before 
we could get our proper bearings. 

The better class of native women all wear black silk 
cloaks, but they make a display of their stockings, which 
are usually pink. They wear long veils and the orna- 
ments before referred to on their noses. 

The poorer women, who do not wear the veil, in order 
to make themselves hideous, tatoo blue lines on their 
chins. Frequently the blind beggar is in evidence. His 
usual cry is "meskin" — poor man. 

Across the jSTile runs a splendid draw-bridge on stout 
piers. When the draw is open you have to wait for the 
vessels all to go through, which takes about two hours. 
We were caught here once and had to amuse ourselves 
with the snake performers and organ grinders. On this 
occasion "The Young Voyager" met with another loss — 
the lovely white silk scarf that ornamented his hat on 
the donkey cavalcade ride was blown away by the wind. 

The Cairo bazaars are very interesting, particularly 
the shops of the gold and silversmiths and of the braziers, 
where the work is done chiefly by hand. The citadel 
and mosques are fine buildings. There are 204 mosques 
in the city and no Christian wearing his boots or shoes 
is allowed to enter. He must wear slippers provided 
for the occasion, and for the use of these "backsheesh," 
of course, is demanded. 

The Egyptian Museum is well worth visiting. At this 
institution we saw the mummies of Barneses the Second 
and Third. The hair of these potentates is still well 
preserved and the colors on the cases which enclose the 
mummies are as bright as they were thousands of years 


ago. Green, gold, pink, purple; and, in fact, nearly all 
the colors of the rainbow, are copied, and in some cases 
appear harmoniously and happily blended. 

We were shown a mummy said to be the remains of 
the son of the Pharaoh who was drowned in the Red Sea 
when in pursuit of Moses and the Israelites; also the 
statute of Pepi I. and his son. Both figures are of 
beaten copper. Over a wooden case the ancient Egyptians 
wrought the face and figure of the King, inserting eyes 
of obsidian and white limestone. The bust, arms and 
legs consist of hammered plates joined, apparently, with- 
out solder. This venerable work of art was produced 
3500 B. C. Many of the mummy cases have on their 
woodwork pictures of their occupants. 

At the Museum, in pleasant contrast with the usual 
request for "backsheesh," we were confronted with notices 
saying, that by order of the Khedive, no tips are to be 
given to any one in the institution. It is stated that the 
better classes deprecate this custom of begging and the 
consequent bestowal of money. It is also said in this 
connection that the Americans have ruined the people 
and caused them to quit their ordinary vocations and 
crowd to the cities to live by mendicancy. 

We took a drive out to an ostrich farm in the desert 
This enterprise has 800 birds of all ages and sizes, from 
the one-day-old chick to the patriarch of the flock. It is 
kept by a Frenchman, whose house is located on an oasis 
and generously surrounded by trees and flowers, but the 
pens in which the birds are confined are as hot as a torrid 
sun can make them. 

In going and coming we passed the "Virgin Tree," 
under which the Holy Family rested (?) after their flight 
into Egypt. Driving to the ostrich farm we also passed 
Heliopolis, the On of the Bible. All that remains of the 


ancient site of the great seat of learning established here, 
on the borders of the Land of Goshen, is a solitary obelisk. 
It was here — doubtless by moonlight and under its very 
shadow — that the youthful David whispered the oft-told 
tale of love into the willing, perhaps eager, ears of 
Aseneth, the daughter of the priest of On, who became 
his wife. This obelisk was built in the time of Abraham. 
Under its shelter Plato wrote his poems and planned his 
academic school of thought. Here, too, Jeremiah com- 
muned with God and issued his denunciations of the sins 
of his nation, foretelling with prophetic ken the evils 
that would befall the Israelites. The obelisk on the 
Thames and the one in Central Park, New York, once 
were mates to the one now left solitary and alone to mark 
the site of the ancient city of On. In this connection, 
my old friend, C. A. Richardson, informs me he was 
present when the obelisk on the Thanies embankment was 
placed in its present position. 

It is generally supposed that there exists only the three 
pyramids shown in the pictures of Egypt, but there are 
a succession of these structures extending for about fifty 
miles and looming up in the distance. As one travels 
by rail along the course of the Nile he sees the remains 
of no less than seventy. An electric road runs to the 
great pyramid, Cheops, and to the Sphinx. One can 
almost imagine that the Sphinx would turn his long-gazing 
eyes from the waste of sands around him to look in 
wonder and bewilderment at the modern invasion. 

At the base of Cheops and the Sphinx a town has 
sprung up, with hotel and other necessary requirements 
for the accomodation of tourists. Town lots can be had 
on the installment plan, and the same are staked out in 
the golden sands of the Sahara, as it were, under the very 
nose of the Sphinx. 


Until we reached Egypt, we had no idea what the word 
"old"meant. We who write this book have been regarded 
as a sort of antiquarian, and have always felt an interest 
in archaBological subjects. In fact, we have long been a 
member of the Virginia Historical Society, the Society 
for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities and kindred 
organizations ; in truth, we are getting old ourselves. We 
have looked upon "ye ancient capital," Williamsburg, with 
pride and pointed to the ivy-mantled tower at Jamestown 
as a synonym of old age. We have held in pious venera- 
tion old St. John's Church, erected in 1741, and admitted 
to be the oldest church in the oldest existing parish in the 
United States. We have looked upon the so-called head- 
quarters of General Washington in our own city, Rich- 
mond, which is pointed out as the oldest house in the 
capital of the Old Dominion. 

Some years ago when in England, we visited West- 
minster, St. Paul's and many other ancient buildings ; and 
in Scotland, Sterling Castle, the castle at Edinburgh, and 
St. Margaret's, the oldest church in ancient Edinburgh. 
Even then we felt that our local antiquities, as "antiques," 
were not in it. And when we got to Pome, Naples, 
Pompeii and Venice, we found England and Scotland 
were youths in comparison to the "hoary headedness" of 
these countries. But when, forsooth, we reached Egypt 
we discovered that all the things we had ever seen or 
dreamed of before were as babes compared with the 
venerable landmarks of the Pharaohs. 

When I left my Virginia home I asked my wife if 
there was any special thing she wished me to bring her. 
She said she had always wanted a dozen ivory napkin rings. 
So we began to inquire wherever we stopped for ivory 
napkin rings. At Madeira, Cadiz, Gibraltar, Algiers, 
Athens,, Constantinople and Smyrna we sought them, but 


all in vain. We were assured, however, there was no doubt 
about finding them at Cairo — that all things were to be 
had at Cairo. So when we reached Cairo we began our 
search again, but if there were a dozen ivory napkin rings 
in Cairo we could not find them, though we visited at 
least fifty stores and bazaars. On our way back home we 
tried Naples and Rome, without success. The search 
seemed like pursuing an ignis fatuus, but finally we found 
what we wanted in Brussels and London. 

In Cairo we witnessed a Mohammedan wedding pro- 
cession, headed by a drum corps, with kettle drum in full 
blast; then came the friends of the bride walking; next 
the bride herself in a carriage covered over with a fine 
rug; she could neither see nor be seen, which would have 
marred the pleasure of an American girl; then a number 
of carriages containing invited guests, followed by a 
"banner with a strange device," balanced on the chin of 
the bearer ; then another banner carried on the head of an 
attendant. The bridegroom was not present, as he, 
according to custom, was not permitted to see his bride 
until after the ceremony had been performed. He then 
conducted her to his house and they saw each other for the 
first time. The courting in the Orient is done after the 
marriage, the whole affair being arranged by the parents. 
Even the love-making is done by proxy. Could anything 
be more horrible, my young friends ? 


Mount iEtna, Naples and Vesuvius — Excavations at Pompeii — 
Among the Gamblers at Monte Carlo — Up the Rhine to Cologne 
—The Bishop and the Mice— Pilgrims See the Skulls of 11,000 
at the Church of St. Ursula — Foul Canals at Amsterdam — 
Sights in Holland — The Hague and Antwerp — Perley Seeks the 
''Circus" in London — Adventures in Ireland — Shandon Bells 
and Comments on Old St. John's Church — Blarney Castle and 
the Irish Girls — Westward, Ho! — Betting on Shipboard — A 
Prince of Liars — Old Virginia the Best of All. 

Leaving Alexandria for Naples, we steamed through 
the narrow Straits of Messina which divide Sicily from 
Italy. The mountains, bathed in a purple haze with a 
dark background and shifting, misty shadows, presented 
a beautiful picture, while the rocks looked like majestic 
castles inhabited by mighty giants and evil genii. We 
could imagine the hills invested with the creations of the 
old classic poets. Soon — 

"Mount Mtna. we spy, 
Known by the smoky flames which cloud the sky." 

The ancients believed this mountain the prison of a 
chained giant, Encelados, and the workshop of a swart 
god. The flames proceeded from the breath of the giant, 
while the thunderous noises of the mountain were his 
groans. When he turned upon his side earthquakes shook 
the island. 

Our next stop was in the world-famed Bay of Naples. 
The ancient city of Naples was called Parthenope, after 
the fabled siren, who attempted, unsuccessfully, to seduce 
Ulysses, immortalized by Homer. In her rage and 
despair, she, together with her sisters, sought death in 
the sea. 



Nightly, as our good ship Arabic lay in the bay, we 
would look at the stream of lava pouring through the 
immense crevasse down the sides of Mount Vesuvius, to 
burst forth in a few days as with a besom of destruction. 

We visited the famous museum, where there is a fine 
collection from the ruins of Herculaneum and Pompeii. 
Among other curios we saw theatre tickets used in these 
ill-fated cities and made of thin marble. Those who went 
in free were presented with a small marble slab, on which 
was engraved a skull, hence the origin of the word "Dead- 

We visited the zoological station, and found the 
aquarium of special interest. Here we saw the octopus, 
cuttlefish and other rare specimens of marine life. The 
Neapolitans did not particularly impress us, nor did the 
city's ragged barterers and beggars, or her smells and 
noises appeal favorably to our sensibilities. 

Of course, we went to the resurrected city of Pompeii, 
which lay buried for so many years under the ashes and 
lava that destroyed it 7.9 A. D. Pompeii is about half 
excavated, and it is estimated that it will take forty or 
fifty years more to complete the work at the present rate 
of progress. The buildings are small, as a rule, and the 
streets very narrow, but well paved. The walls of the 
houses even to-day appear well decorated. One of the 
most interesting of the buildings is the Temple of Jupiter. 
A stairway leads to an upper story, from which is obtained 
a fine view, suggesting Shelley's lines — 

"I stood within a city disinterred 
And heard the autumnal leaves like light footfalls 
Of spirits passing through the streets; and heard 
The mountain's slumberous voice at intervals 
Thrill through those roofless halls." 

Tn Pompeii there are many interesting buildings, 


among others, the Ampitheatre, which could accommodate 
twenty or twenty-five thousand spectators. 

The best advertised article of American manufacture 
in Naples — one found in every city — is the Singer Sewing 
Machine. It seems to be in universal use. 

From Naples, where the party of the cruise was, to 
a great extent, disbanded, our trio went to Rome. We 
visited all the places of interest in the city, which have 
been described by me in my first book of travels, "A 
Transatlantic Itinerary." In the Eternal City we found 
the weather very cold, and had to build a fire in our room 
for comfort. 

From Rome we returned to Naples, *and from Naples 
we went to Villefranche (Nice). Here we bade our good 
ship the Arabic good-bye, and left the cruise. We do not 
hesitate to say that the trip, as a whole, was pleasant and 
enjoyable, barring the discomforts of the weather at many 
points, the indifference of the officers to the comfort of the 
passengers on the ship in not having the vessel properly 
heated, and the annoyance to which we were subjected 
in being compelled to tip the servants of the White Star 

Mr. Clark, the conductor of the cruise, and his charming 
wife, did all they could to render the + rip pleasant. The 
same trip could not have been made individually for 
double the amount we paid. It is true that many of our 
guides were incompetent and indifferent; some were 
ignorant and had no information to impart, while others, 
who< were well informed, spoke such poor English that 
they were not capable of intelligently imparting what they 
knew. With these exceptions, our pilgrimage was a 
delightful one. 

The abstract of the log is as follows: 





S. Arabic 

New York to : 





















303 to Funchal. Arrived 

9:13 February 16th. 
2,742 Passage, 7 days 22 hours. 

Villefranche is in the heart of the famous Riviera, the 
narrow strip of land which separates the Maratine Alps 
and the Appennines from the Mediterranean. It is cele- 
brated for its fruit-fulness and picturesque scenery. We 
had a delightful drive, in tourist coaches, to Nice and 
thence fifteen miles over the beautiful upper Corniche 
Road, to Monte Carlo. This drive is justly considered 
the finest in the world, as the road winds around the 
mountains, and one gets superb views of the scenery 
from different elevations. The weather was very cold 
and the wind keen, and during a part of our journey we 
were in a small snow-storm ; yet, notwithstanding these 
physical discomforts, the drive was the most enjoyable 
we ever had. 

Spread out before us, like an immense sea of molten 
silver, was the Mediterranean, its waters scintillating and 
changing into purple shadows or glinting with blue, green 
and gold. The roadway was lined with beautiful flowers 
and shrubbery, luxuriant roses and honeysuckle, while a 
splendid growth of aloes, palms, eucalyptus, lemon trees 
and geraniums flourished everywhere. The cold seemed 
so tempered by the winds from the sea as not to interfere 
with the vitality and luxuriant growth of vegetation. 


On this ride we passed grand gorges and awe-inspiring 
precipices. We could see for miles down into deep valleys, 
where the cattle looked like crawling ants and men like 
specks on the distant horizon. Here, from an altitude of 
thousands of feet, and as we made a turn in the road, we 
had below us a last view of our good old ship. We all 
waved her a friendly farewell, which was returned by her 
many pennants fluttering in the breeze and rippling in 
the wind. As we wound around the mountains the vil- 
lages and towns we had passed in the ascent, became mere 
specks or indistinguishable masses. The beautiful river 
that meanders about the base of the mountain, looked 
like a tiny silver cord, as it wound its way to the sea, and 
the distant train, as it sped along on its journey through 
the verdant valley seemed like a serpent pursuing its 
tortuous course. The constant shifting of the shadows as 
the sun appeared and disappeared under the clouds, 
wrapped the mountain in a beautiful haze, and clothed 
it in garments of blue and purple. Here and there, from 
greater heights, could be seen mountain streams rushing 
down the verdant hillsides, to loose themselves in the 
bosom of the sea. This splendid panoramic display con- 
tinued until we reached Monte Carlo itself. 

Monte Carlo is the chief town, or capital, of Monaco, 
whicli is the smallest of the soverign principalities of 
Europe, being not quite nine miles square. It has the 
smallest standing army in the world — seventy-two men — 
and a population of only about eight thousand. The city 
is known as the great gambling resort of the wealthy of 
the world. 

We spent a few hours in the magnificent palace devoted 
to the God of Chance, and witnessed the gain and loss 
of many thousands. Most of the gambling is done by 
women, who, we were told, are regular habitues of the 


place ; many spend half of their time at the tables, leaving 
only for meals and sleep. 

"The Young Voyager/' against my wishes and advice, 
decided to try his luck, and came out a dollar winner. It 
happened in this way: He made up his mind to risk ten 
dollars. He lost nine, so upon the principle that a dollar 
saved is a dollar made, he claimed to have made a dollar. 
At one time he was nine dollars ahead of the game, but 
with that natural covetousness incident to the gambling 
spirit, he wanted more, and thus lost what he had pre- 
viously gained. 

Perley decided he would go a dollar on the "red line," 
and so anxious w r as he to get his gains that as soon as the 
wheel of fortune ceased to spin he reached over the table 
to grab his winnings, whereupon the croupier rapped him 
over the knuckles with his rake and bade him keep quiet 
until he was waited on in regular order. This was one 
time Perley was not lost. 

One of our lady friends from New York came out five 
dollars winner in the same way "The Young Voyager" 
did. Her father gave her twenty dollars to bank on. 
After she emerged from the fray we asked her how she 
stood on the game. "Oh," said she, "I made five dollars." 
"Where is the money," asked pater familias? "Well, 
here is five^ naively replied Miss E. "Did you not say 
I could spend twenty? I have five left; surely I made 
Hve\ ,y This incident struck me as a complete exemplifi- 
cation of the old saying, "A fool and his money are soon 
parted." Still a fair fool is better than a dullard. 

A lamp post is conveniently arranged for those who 
lose their all, so that they may hang themselves on it. 
Frequently, alas, it is used for this purpose. Further on 
is a cliff over which many, in their despair, have thrown 
themselves, after having tempted Dame Fortune to their 


It is quite interesting to look at the faces of those 
engaged in this fascinating game. The regular gambler 
plies his vocation with "sang jroid," while the novice 
shows his inexperience by nervousness and anxiety, which 
he in vain strives to conceal, or to disguise under an air 
of assumed indifference. The women we saw sustained 
the ordeal better than I supposed they could, and took 
their losses and winnings in a more quiet and orderly 
manner than one would have imagined; but their flushed 
faces, sparkling eyes and the intense watch they kept upon 
the wheel as it revolved, showed their deep interest and 
concern in the game. If they would only follow the 
poet's injunction — 

"If yet thou love game at so dear a rate, 

Learn this, that hath old gamesters dearly cost; 
Dost lose? Rise up; Dost win? Rise in that state, 
Who strive to sit out losing hands are lost." 

We saw this illustrated in several instances, and yet no 
warning, no advice, no caution is heeded. 

This gambling place is a magnificent marble palace 
with a series of parlors, marble floors, massive doors 
opening into one another, walls decorated with mirrors and 
paintings, ceiling ornamented with beautiful frescoes, and 
rooms radiant with light, while music from a distance 
lends its charm to steal away the senses and intoxicate 
the brain. 

As we left the palace to take the cars for Lyons, we 
saw an omnibus bearing the name "Richmond." All 
three of us took off our hats in salutation and greeting, 
to the great surprise of the jehu, who thought we were 
honoring him. 

At ISTice we entered a restaurant and called for a bottle 
of beer. The waiter was a long time bringing it, and on 
investigation, we found he was actually drawing it from 


the keg and bottling it for our special accommodation, 
instead of saying he bad it on draught. All over Europe 
and in the Orient, on land or water, when you buy a 
drink, it is poured out for you — about a thimble full. 
At Pompeii one of our party went into a restaurant, and 
to his surprise, the decanter containing whiskey was set 
on the table before him. He remarked: "Boys, this is 
the first time I have had .the privilege of measuring my 
own drink since I left America, so I think I will take a 
good one," which he proceeded to do, but when the pro- 
prietor came around and took a look at the decanter, he 
made our friend pay double price. 

Our next stopping place was Lyons, France. Here we 
purchased some lace handkerchiefs for our lady friends. 
We hired an automobile at four dollars an hour and "took 
in" the town, but when we came to pay the chaffeur, he 
displayed not only a bill for a two-hours' drive, but for 
the number of miles traveled. Sooner than have a fuss 
we paid it. 

Mayence-on-the-Rhine was our next haulting ground. 
This is a quaint old town with narrow, crooked streets. It 
has many monuments and attractive buildings. In the 
Middle Ages the city, on account of its activity and wealth, 
was called "The Golden," a name it still bears. It is 
famous for its fine wines. 

We took a drive through the city and visited the cathe- 
dral, museum and other public buildings. We were at 
Mayence on a Sunday and were impressed by the crowds 
going to and returning from church. It was quite a 
relief to be in a town where we were not annoyed by 

Onr trip up the Rhine as far as Cologne was delightful. 
The hills upon which are grown the grapes from which 
the famous Rhine wines are made are so steep it hardly 


looks possible to cultivate them. We were told that in 
some places, after a hard rain, the soil is washed from the 
rocks, and that the owner has to carry it back again. 
Terraces and retaining walls are used in many sections. 
As we passed Bingen, with vine-clad hills in the back- 
ground, and the lovely Rhine flowing at its feet, I could 
but recalls the last words of the soldier of the Legion, 
"who lay dying in Algiers." In the vision before his 
death — 

"He saw the blue Rhine sweep along; he heard or seemed to hear, 
The German songs he used to sing in chorus sweet and clear; 
And down the pleasant river, and up the slanting hill, 
The echoing chorus sounded through the evening calm and still." 

As I recited this beautiful poem, I was joined by a lady 
originally from New York, but now residing in Paris, 
and we repeated it together. The love and attachment 
the German has for the Fatherland is not surprising; it 
is a beautiful country. 

We passed many celebrated castles and places of 
interest — the Rock of Ehrenbreitstein, one of the largest 
fortresses in Europe, and also the famous Mouse Tower. 
Many legends are attached to these old castles on the 
Rhine ; among others is one connected with Bishop Hatto. 
The legend goes that in a time of great distress, when he 
saw the people oppressed with famine, he assembled a 
large company of them in his barn, under the pretense of 
relieving their necessities, and after getting the barn full 
he closed the doors and set fire to the building, thus 
destroying the whole assembly of men, women and children. 

The excuse the prelate gave for his cruel act was that 
he thought the famine would end sooner if there were 
fewer to feed. He said that these poor folks were like 
mice — they were good for nothing but to devour corn. 


But God Almighty, to avenge the death of his victims, 
and to punish the Bishop, mustered an army of mice, 
which afflicted him day and night, and would not suffer 
him to rest in peace. Whereupon the Bishop, thinking 
he would be secure from the little rodents, moved into 
his castle and tower near Bingen-on-the-Rhine, or, as it 
is called in German, the "Mouse Turn," where he was 
pursued and destroyed by the mice. Southey, in his 
ballad, "God's Judgment on a Bishop," has immortalized 
the legend. He thus describes the advent of the army 
of mice, or rats: 

"And in at the windows and in at the door, 
And through the walls by thousands they pour, 
And down from the ceiling and up through the floor, 
From the right and left, from behind and before, 
From within and without, from above and below, 
And all at once to the Bishop they go. 
They have whetted their teeth against the stones, 
And now they pick the Bishop's bones; 
They gnaw'd the flesh from every limb, 
For they were sent to do judgment on him." 


We went past Heidelberg, famous for its university, its 
schloss or castle, and its duelling grounds. When the 
hills bordering the Rhine are covered with vines and 
purple with grapes, they must present a beautiful sight. 
In the early part of April, when we took our trip, the 
lands were bare, but castles crowned every hilltop like 
sentinels. As we glided along up the noble Rhine, there 
were borne to our listening ears by the evening air, the 
voices of the German students singing their national air, 
which, in English, reads partly as follows: 

"While yet one drop of life-blood flows, 
The sword shall never know repose; 
While yet one arm the shot can pour, 
The foe shall never reach thy shore. 
Rest, Fatherland, for sons of thine 
Shall steadfast keep the Wacht am Rhein." 


Coleridge has written of Cologne — 

"The river Rhine, it is well known, 
Doth wash your city of Cologne; 
But tell me, nymphs, what power divine, 
Shall henceforth wash the river Rhine?" 

The writer, therefore, was pleasantly disappointed to 
find the River Rhine clear and beautiful at Cologne, and 
he regards Coleridge's lines as a travesty and an injustice 
to the city and the noble river. 

We visited the Church of St. Ursula, where are 
arranged in wall cases the skulls and bones of eleven 
thousand virgins, who, with the saint and martyr, for 
whom the church is named, were put to death by an army 
of Huns. It is quite a gruesome sight. 

Here also we were shown an alabaster vase, wherein 
it is alleged that our Saviour turned the water into wine 
at the marriage at Cana. Inasmuch as the Gospel says, 
"there were six waterpots of stone" that were filled with 
water that was made wine, we were somewhat at a loss 
to understand where the alabaster vase came in. 

The cathedral is one of the greatest buildings in the 
world. Its towers and spires are so huge as to dwarf the 
immense structure. Some of the spires are over five 
hundred feet high and are occupied by a large concourse 
of daws, that fly in and out undisturbed by the noise in 
the streets. The cathedral is 468 feet long and it covers 
an area of 91,464 square feet. The interior is very 
impressive. It is notable for its splendid glass windows. 

The horses in Cologne, apparently, are as huge as 
elephants, always excepting Jumbo, and move as slowly; 
in fact, they seem never to go out of a walk. There are 
several public squares or parks for the school children, 
with donkeys for them to ride, swings and other amuse- 
ment features. The little ones who misbehave or fail in 


their recitations are allowed to look on, but are not per- 
mitted to participate in the games. This, we were told, 
is the only punishment inflicted. 

As soon as the railroad going from France to Germany 
touches German territory the conductors and all the rail- 
road employees are changed. There is another curious 
custom on the railroads in Germany ; you pay for a ticket, 
but that does not entitle you to a seat. Every hour or so 
the conductor comes around and collects twenty-five cents 
for the use of a seat — a singular performance, we thought. 

Our next stop was at Amsterdam, the capital of the 
Netherlands, built on marshy grounds and traversed by 
canals connected by many bridges. This famous city also 
has connection with the North Sea by canals. If Cole- 
ride had written his rhymes about the canals that traverse 
Amsterdam instead of about the Rhine and Cologne, they 
would apply perfectly. The waters in the canals are not 
onlv dark, but foul and offensive, as thev receive all the 
garbage and sewage of the city. 

In Germany and in Ilolland one is required to show 
a coupon after he gets off the cars before he is permitted to 
leave the depot or go to his hotel. When we debarked at 
Amsterdam, this writer could not find his coupon. He 
thought he had lost it and was detained by the guard. 
The unhappy Richmonder could not understand what the 
guard said, nor could the guard understand the Rich- 
monder. Had the New York gentleman of the "Sunday 
School Class" been along, his knowledge of German would 
have relieved the situation. But finally, after the captive 
had searched his pockets again and again, the missing 
piece of paper was brought to light ; otherwise, it is to be 
supposed that he would have been placed under arrest and 
would then have had to appeal to the American Consul. 

There seems to be an immense business done in this 


city. The people of Amsterdam do not entertain a very 
good opinion of their neighbors in Rotterdam. When we 
spoke of leaving and going there, we were advised not to 
do so ; in fact, we were told that city was, as its name 
implied, a-dam-rotten town. What the Dutch of Rotter- 
dam had done to offend the Dutch of Amsterdam we were 
not informed, but there seemed to be no good feeling 
between the people of the two municipalities. 

We noticed scores of the houses all built on piles, many 
a foot and some two or three feet out of plomb, as though 
about to topple into the streets. 

The King's Palace and the Museum were visited by 
us, and there we saw the characteristic costumes of men, 
women and children in effigy, showing the dress of cen- 
turies past, as well as the mode of dress of to-day in the 
different towns and villages. No two figures were habited 

In Holland — we presume to prevent adulteration — the 
hotels have pepper boxes in which the grain pepper is put 
and by turning the top you grind your own pepper and 
have it fresh and genuine. We commend this plan to 
the advocates and votaries of the pure-food law. 

Here we took an automobile ride of about seventy- 
five miles, going for a great distance on the dykes of the 
Zuycler Zee, through villages of fishermen and farmers, 
and those engaged in milling, and other occupations. We 
visited one town composed almost entirely of wind-mills, 
and as they whirled their long arms round and round we 
thought of the adventures of Don Quixote, with what, in 
his infatuation, he called giants. It must have been just 
such a scene as this that excited him to action, and which 
resulted so disastrously to him and his gallant steed. 

Our chaffeur carried us with such speed that some- 
times we could hardly see, and we passed through narrow 


streets and lanes like a streak of lightning. As soon as 
our honk, honk, was heard, women would rush out of doors 
and snatch up their children from the impending danger ; 
the ducks would squawk and the geese would gabble and 
fly and waddle off in consternation. We ran quite through 
a flock of hens; one of the fowls, in an effort to escape, 
flew over our heads. The cattle along the roadsides 
beholding our rapid transit, would raise their tails in the 
air and run for life, and the horses and sheep sped away 
as fast as they could go ; in fact, we cut a wide swathe 
as we went, and produced such a sensation among those 
quiet burghers as they never before had experienced. 
Everything cleared the path before us ; the men driving 
cows hurried them down the banks, and those in carts and 
wagons went into ditches to enable us to pass. 

"And still as fast as we drew near, 'twas wonderful to view, 
How in a trice the turnpike men their gates wide open threw." 

Several times we came so near having an accident and 
went so fast that the only comfort and consolation I had 
was in the knowledge of the fact that I carried a good 
accident policy. 

We stopped for refreshments in one village, where the 
men with their wide breeches, the children with their 
wooden shoes or clogs and the women with their queer 
lace caps and jewels on their noses cut quite an interesting 
picture. It seemed that every man, woman and child 
came out to examine our machine, and when we mounted 
to leave and gave a warning honk, such a scattering and 
scampering was never before seen. The people fairly ran 
over one another to get out of the way, but we were 
followed as far as they could keep up, by every boy of the 
town, their clogs making an awful clatter in our rear. 
One of these chaps, boy like, and unknown to us, climbed 


up behind. After we had gotten up a pretty good speed 
we happened to turn and look back and down the urchin 
dropped. The last we saw of him he was spinning around 
like a top, but he made no stop, and for aught we know 
may still be spinning. 

Outside of the towns the roads were fine and we 
hummed along at a terrific speed; so fast, that "The 
Young Voyager" had some of his mustache swept away, 
while the rest of us lost a few hairs from our scantv 

The land is cultivated by irrigation, water being con- 
ducted from the canals by a system of dykes and ditches. 
The farm houses are large and comfortable looking — just 
such houses as one would imagine a Dutchman would 
build. The crops are in a good state of cultivation; 
indeed, everything indicates thrift and prosperity. 

The Hollanders are a very polite and courteous people. 
When we met them in places outside of the city they would 
almost invariably stop on the roadside, come to military 
attention and give the soldier's salute. 

In the towns they use dogs hitched to carts to carry 
the milk to market. We noticed canal boats drawn by 
men instead of donkeys or horses ; yet the hauling looked 
like pretty hard work. 

The houses have no alleys, and coal and wood — in fact 
all heavy articles — are raised to the upper stories by ropes. 
The children, when they go into the house, take off their 
clogs, and it is no uncommon sight to see several pairs 
outside the street doors. In one or two of the villages 
which we passed through, the banks were lined with fishing 
nets, indicating that the whole community lived by this 

In other villages were immense flocks of contentedly- 
quacking ducks and joyously-cackling hens, who plainly 


indicated that there were fresh eggs for sale. We saw 
many women! with their little push-carts carrying poultry, 
eggs and vegetables to the nearest markets. Peat was 
also carried around in wagons and sold for daily use 
for fires and cooking purposes. Everything in Holland, 
as I have said, indicates thrift — no beggars. 

We left Amsterdam for The Hague, and while on the 
way, passed thousands of acres of tulip beds, J aid off as 
symmetrically as a mosaic floor, and with variegated 
colors, looking like a carpet of beautiful tapestry. It 
was the most unique and lovely panoramic display of 
growing flowers we ever beheld. These blossoms are 
shipped all over Europe. The cultivation of tulips is an 
industry — and a very profitable one, we were told — 
peculiar to these people. 

The Hague is the capital of South Holland, as Amster- 
dam is of North Holland. It is a quiet, rural town, but 
has some fine public buildings and lovely, well-wooded 
parks. These contain many deer, which are quite tame. 
The Hague is a popular summer resort, and has a great 
many saloons. We asked one of the citizens what was 
the chief industry of the town, and his ready reply was, 
"Making drinks for visitors." 

From The Hague we took the train for Antwerp. This 
route reminded us very much of old Virginia, the familiar 
pine being much in evidence, as were also large fields 
of wheat. We found the railroad officials exceptionally, 
polite — thanking us when we tendered our tickets, and 
requiring nothing extra for a seat, as they do in Germany. 

Antwerp was the most quiet city we saw in our travels — 
a sort of Rip Van Winkle town. The streets appeared 
almost deserted and the people seemed to go to bed early 
and get up late. Perley was always "impressed," to a 
greater or less extent, with every city he visited, but 


generally one impression wore off as soon as we got to the 
next city. The last town almost invariably impressed him 
more than the one he had just left, but he announced that 
he was not pleased with Antwerp. It was the only town 
in which he did not get lost. 

This city does an immense shipping business, but seems 
to have very little local trade. Its people use very large 
draft horses and huge trucks, which carry immense loads. 

On our way from Antwerp to Brussels our eyes were 
gladdened by apple, peach and pear trees in full bloom, 
and our faces were fanned by delightful spring breezes. 
The country is densely populated. 

Brussels is a fine, live city, the people chiefly French, 
and it reminds one very much of la belle Paris. The 
streets are clean and crowded day and night — quite a 
contrast with Antwerp. We took a carriage and visited 
all the places of interest, after which we left for Ghent. 

This city is noted for its linen, cotton and lace, and has 
many fine buildings. Judging from the street display, 
its inhabitants live chiefly on eggs and onions. Every 
square has its own market, but only a certain class of 
goods are permitted to be sold at each; so the housewife 
has to make the rounds of the town in order to supply 
her larder. The women, by the way, do all the trading, 
both selling and buying. We presume, therefore, that a 
day's marketing means and all-day business. In Holland 
they hitch one and two dogs to a cart, in Brussels three. 

From Ghent we went to London, arriving two days 
before Easter. Of course, we saw all the places of 
interest in this capital of the world. We attended St. 
Paul's Easter Sunday morning, and services at West- 
minster Abbey Sunday evening. Both buildings were so 
crowded that we could not get seats. 

Standing in front of our hotel, the Cecil, Perley noticed 


that the constantly-passing 'busses bore the signs, "Lud- 
gate Circus/' "Fleet-Street Circus/' etc., so he decided 
he would go to see "the show." After riding several 
miles, the 'bus stopped and he asked the driver where 
was the circus. "Circus" in London means a circular 
space where different streets meet or cross one another. 
The driver pointed to the empty circle. "But where are 
the elephants, camels, and tents ?" asked Perley. The 
driver looked at Perley as though he thought he was 
crazy. "Well," replied Perley, "if that don't beat 
thunder; put up signs to the circus, and set a man down 
in the street !" He thought he had been badly used. We 
had a good laugh on him, and Perley became indignant. 
He immediately went and lost himself, as usual. 

From London we took the cars to Liverpool. As the 
day of our departure was a holiday we found them very 
much crowded. In our compartment were two English 
boys, residents of Liverpool, who entertained us with 
jokes and songs. 

From Liverpool we went to Dublin. We found the 
weather quite cold. We rode over the city in the novel 
Irish jaunting cart, and realizing we had but a short time 
to catch the train for Cork, we offered the driver an extra 
fee if he would make the station in time. Off he started 
and down the street we went at a furious rate, sitting 
sidewise, as one has to do in these peculiar vehicles. We 
held on witli great difficulty, expecting every moment that 
our Irish pony would go down on the slick stones. Paddy 
did not spare his beast, and we. made the train in the 
nick of time. 

The road from Dublin to Cork traverses a beautiful 
country. At the season of our visit the hedges of Irish 
furze were in full blossom, and their rich, yellow bloom 
gilded the landscape and crowned the hills with gold. 


The greensward of intense verdure, which gives this 
country its name — the Emerald Isle — was dappled with 
primroses and buttercups, while peeping up to be kissed 
by the rays of the morning sun we saw — 

"O, the shamrock, the green, immortal shamrock! 

Chosen leaf 

Of bard and chief, 
Old Erin's native shamrock. 
O, the shamrock." 

Ireland is one of the richest countries in the world, 
and yet it has the poorest people. Governed, as it is, by 
absentee landlords, who neither know nor care for their 
tenants, its inhabitants have no incentive or encourage- 
ment to take pride in their country, and consequently, 
all the best of the population emigrate and leave only 
the poorest and those physically disqualified for work. 

The land, instead of growing cereals, is used almost 
exclusively for the pasturing of sheep and cattle. We 
saw some of the finest tillable soil in Great Britain as we 
journeyed along. When we reached a station called 
Mallow^, we heard a great hubbub and commotion, and 
looked out to see what was the matter. There was Paddy 
in every conceivable form — men, women and children, the 
gray-haired mother, the toil-worn father, the buxom lassie, 
the young and the middle aged, as well as the babies. 
All were in a state of great excitement, for the crowd had 
assembled to bid farewell and good luck to a large party 
of emigrants bound for America on our train. It was a 
regular Donybrook Fair — some were crying and others 
were laughing; mothers clasped their sons and daughters 
in parting embrace, while wives held their bairns to the 
car windows to receive a last kiss from their fathers. 
Some were drunk ; indeed ,we beheld persons, respectively, 
representing all three stages — the jocose, the lachrymose 


and the bellicose. Such a scene I never before witnessed ; 
it had both its pathetic and its humorous phases, but the 
pathetic side far outweighed the ridiculous, for if these 
people were encouraged to stay at home why should they 
leave ? 

A gentleman adorned by a silk hat and Prince Albert 
coat got into our compartment at the station, and as he 
seated himself near me, I asked him to explain the scene 
before us. He replied: "I presume from your speech 
you are an American; well, these people are bound for 
your land. Paddy will not work at home," added he, 
"and the country is being drained of its best and most 
useful population." 

My fellow-traveler talked intelligently on the Irish 
question. Ireland's past, present and future were dis- 
cussed but as to the latter, he was not very hopeful. The 
stranger proved to be the Lord Bishop of Limerick, and 
when he left the train at the next station he expressed 
pleasure at having met me. 

We drove over Cork and found it quite a pleasant city. 
It has a population of about 75,000. Here and at Dublin 
we found the richest golden-colored butter we had seen 
since we left old Virginia. It offered such a contrast to 
the miserable, rancid stuff we had had on the ship and 
in the Orient, that we heartily enjoyed the change. 

At Dublin "The Young Voyager," while in our hotel, 
started to go from the parlor to another room, but walked 
into a magnificent mirror, reaching from floor to ceiling, 
Seeing his own image in the glass, he did not recognize 
himself, owing to the wonderful change wrought in his 
physiognomy by his mustache. He made a profound 
apology to his reflection, and it was only after several 
bows and "after you, my dear Alphonso's," that he dis- 
covered his mistake and passed on. 


It being uncomfortably cold in Cork, we ordered a fire, 
and "The Young Voyager/' to hasten the combustion of 
the fuel, temporarily converted himself into a human 
bellows. We saw many idle people, and encountered 
many juvenile beggars. Our party "took in the city" in 
an Irish jaunting car, and notwithstanding the cold, 
greatly enjoyed the drive by the River Lee and over the 
hills to the suburbs. As we listened to the glorious peals 
of Shandon, we could but repeat the beautiful lines of 
Father Prout : 

"With deep affection 
And recollection 
I often think of 
Those Shandon bells, 
Whose sounds so mild would, 
In the days of childhood, 
Fling round my cradle 
Their magic spell." 

After listening to their musical rhythm and silvery 
sound, we were not surprised that Father Prout should* 
have added: 

"On this I ponder 
Where'er I wander, 
And thus grow fonder, 
Sweet Cork, of thee — 
With thy bells of Shandon, 
That sound so grand on 
The pleasant waters 
Of the River Lee." 

From Cork we took train to Blarney Castle, the road 
running along the banks of a lovely mountain stream, 
whose limpid waters were sparkling in the sun as they 
rippled through the verdant valley. Here, as elsewhere, 
the landscape was beautified and adorned by the Irish 


At the Great Southern Hotel we had for breakfast the 
first hot bread we had eaten for many a day, and with it 
the most delicious of Irish butter. Here, too, for the first 
time since leaving America, "The Young Voyager" got 
his eggs to suit him. He had had trouble along this line 
on the boat, in every city of the Orient, on the Continent 
and in London, for he was very finicky about his "hen 
fruit." He generally preferred the eggs fried, and always 
gave the order, "fried on both sides," but he could never 
get them to suit him; they would almost invariably be 
brought in friend on one side only and about half done. 
At Killarney — blessed day ! — they were done to a turn. 

As we went down to breakfast, the bell for early mass 
was ringing, and Harry asked me of what was I reminded. 

"Why ! of old St, John's !" I replied. Had I not known 
where I was, I would have been certain it was our old 
bell ringing for service — dear old St. John's, within whose 
shadow I was born ; within whose hallowed precincts for 
more than a quarter of a century I have worshipped, and 
from whose sacred portals ere many years I shall be borne 
to rest by the noble James, there to sleep the sleep that 
knows no waking until the resurrection morn. Of old 
St. John's bell, I can truthfully say — 

"I've heard bells chiming 
Pull many a clime in, 
Tolling sublime in 
Cathedral shrine, 
While at the glib rate 
Brass tongues would vibrate; 
But all their music 
Spoke naught like thine. 

"I've heard bells tolling 
'Old Adrian's Mole' in, 
Their thunder rolling 
From the Vatican; 
And cymbals glorious, 
Swinging uproarious. 


In the gorgeous turrets 
Of Notre Dame; 
But thy sounds are sweeter 
Than the dome of Peter 
Flings o'er the Tiber, 
Pealing solemnly." 

Perley seemed charmed with the Irish girls — he had 
received a fresh "impression" — but he could not get them 
to believe he was an American. One of them told him 
she knew he was a German from his talk — that no Ameri- 
can talked as he did. To produce a good impression in 
parting, he remarked, "You had better go with me to 
America." She naively replied, "I will if you will fur- 
nish the ticket." It was "up to" Perley, but he did not 
rise to the occasion ; on the contrary, he beat an inglorious 
retreat amidst the laughter of those present. As might 
have been expected, he was lost for a reply. 

The Great Southern Hotel at Killarney is a fine build- 
ing, but during our visit it was cold and raw, and had no 
fires; yet the guests, chiefly English, who do not, accord- 
ing to American ideas, know what comfort is, seemed to 
enjoy the draft of cold air passing through the parlors 
like a young hurricane. All the windows were kept 
raised and the doors open. The English are born and 
live in a damp, cold climate, and hence their blood becomes 
like that of a frog, and they dislike warmth and comfort. 
The hotel had all the modern improvements, except lights ; 
only tallow candles were in use. 

The drive around the lakes was delightful, as the trees 
and rocks were covered with verdant moss, while the leaves 
were just beginning to put forth, and the scenery of hill, 
dale, valley and sparkling waters was most enjoyable. 
Of course, we visited Blarney Castle with its famous stone, 
about which runs this tradition: 


"There is a stone whoever kisses, 
Oh! he never misses to grow eloquent, 
'Tis\he may clamber to a lady's chamber 
Or become a mimber of sweet parliament; 
A clever spouter he'll sure turn out, or 
An out-and-outer to be let alone, 
Don't hope to hinder him, or to bewilder him, 
Sure he's a pilgrim from the Blarney stone." 

We climbed up the winding turret stairs until we felt 
like a corkscrew. After viewing the stone, and reflecting 
on the difficulty of getting to it, we preferred kissing by 
proxy, so we touched the stone with our hands and then 
kissed them. "The Young Voyager" remarked that he 
thought they should keep within reach some pretty Irish 
girls, so that they could be used as proxies. He said he 
would prefer kissing a Mavourneen any time to a dirty 

From Blarney we went to Queenstown. Here we 
struck up with an Irish wit and story-teller in the shape 
of a junketing car driver, whom we employed to show us 
the town. As we were driving down a narrow street the 
horse shied at an empty barrel. "The Young Voyager" 
remarked to the jehu : "Your horse can't be Irish, or 
he would not be afraid of a barrel." Pat replied: "An' 
faith, he knows there's no beer in it." 

As we drove around, Pat said: "You see that fine 
church over there ? Well," added he, "that is what we 
call a High Church, and there is only one poor man in 
the church ; he delivers the papers to the other members, 
who take care of him. On Christmas they make up an 
extra purse of four or five pounds for him. Well, on last 
Christmas they gave William, the paper carrier, the usual 
donation, so he went off on a spree for a *week or ten days, 
and the church members missed their papers, and went 
after William. Ascertaining the trouble, they scut the 


Cenon after the sinner. The good man asked William 
if he would take the pledge. William replied that he 
was already under the pledge, and had been for years, 
but had violated more pledges than were contained in a 
pawnbroker's shop. 

"The Canon became indignant, and stamping his foot, 
demanded to know if he was not afraid to take a pledge 
and violate it. William replied, 'Of course, your River- 
ance, I am afraid at the mouth of a cannon!' Pat gave 
us a good many tales and witty sayings, which added to 
our pleasure. 

We left Queenstown April 21st on the splendid steamer 
Cedric for home. We had only about 240 first-class pas- 
sengers on board, but we had about 2,000 emigrants. A 
good many of the first-class pasengers were English, and 
were not as sociable as the crowd we had on the Arabic. 

While the weather was not as cold as when we went 
over, the "blasted English" would insist on having all the 
windows and doors open in the library, smoking and 
dining-room "to get a bit of fresh air," as they termed it, 
so we suffered considerable discomfort. A party of 
Americans would go into the smoker and close the windows 
for comfort; in would come a party of Britishers and 
request the steward to open the windows ; thus there was 
a constant opening and closing. 

On one occasion Lord Somebody wished to know who 
closed the windows. An American replied that he had, 
and said: "If you find it too warm in here, I would 
suggest that you go out and sit on deck, where you can get 
all the wind you want." His Lordship had no more to 

When we got near New York and found the weather 
warm and balmy, these Englishmen kept all the windows 
closed, I suppose to bottle up the cold air for their com- 
fort and pleasure. Verily, they are a queer set. 


There was a good deal of betting on the log of the ship. 
Pools were formed daily on the run the vessel would make, 
and about $300 to $400 would exchange hands on the 
results. "The Young Voyager" took a bet at $20 to $2— 
pretty big odds. The next morning, just about the time 
the run of the previous day was to be announced, in came 
the party with whom "The Young Voyager" had his bet. 
The former held up a $20 bill and remarked, "Well, I 
guess this is yours." "The Young Voyager" rose with 
the flush of triumph on his cheek and the glint of victory 
in his eye, and started to reach for the $20, but on finding 
it was only a joke, and that he had lost his $2 instead of 
winning the $20, he assumed a lugubrious air, his cheeks 
paled with disappointment, and he quietly resumed his 
seat, a sadder if not a wiser man. 

In the early portion of this narrative, mention was 
made of "the unconscious and amiable liar" on the Arabic. 
It was our fortune to strike up on the Cedric with the 
artistic liar, the Baron Munchausen of the entire trip — 
the Prince of Liars (the word is not used in an offensive 
sense). This gentleman was an American and said he 
resided in the State of Wyoming and had a sheep ranch. 
He declared that in the summer time it was so hot out 
there that he had to hire 1,000 boys, who used 8,000 fans, 
to keep his sheep cool by fanning them ; moreover, in the 
lambing season, he used 10,000 nursing bottles for his 
lambs. This wondrous prevaricator further said that in 
winter he used from 8,000 to 10,000 blankets made 
expressly for the purpose, to keep his sheep warm, and 
that instead of dogs he had 400 trained coyotes to assist 
in corralling his flocks. To cap it all, he swore that he 
kept a sheep dentist to look after and keep his woll- 
producers' teeth in order. Our redoubtable Munchausen 
would spin out these yarns to an admitting group without 
batting an eye or cracking a smile. 


We also had a quiet gentleman who listened with 
interest to these wonderful tales. On one occasion, the 
"Prince" said that the mountains on which his sheep 
grazed were so steep that he had to have every one of 
them shod with iron tips. "Why," said the quiet gentle- 
man, "I don't understand that; I have noticed sheep and 
they are so nervous that if a fly touches their legs they 
kick. I don't see how you could keep them quiet long 
enough to have them shod." But the "Prince" insisted 
that he was adhering strictly to the truth. He also stated 
that his house was built near a mountain stream, and that 
it was no uncommon thing for him to catch from his back 
porch two hundred pounds of trout before breakfast. 
Ah ! as a liar, that man was a daisy ! 

We had quite a squall one day on our return voyage; 
the wind blew violently, and lashed the sea into a perfect 
maelstrom of foam. Great sheets of water came on deck, 
and the spray enveloped the ship. I enjoyed the sight 
very much. 

We give an astract of the log of the Cedric, Liverpool 
to New York: 





















101 to Sandy Hook light vessel 

2,889 Passage, 7 days, 11 hours, 33 minutes. 

Our trip, as a whole, was a very delightful one, 
involving extremes in everything — cold and heat, snow- 


capped mountains in some places and balmy zephyrs and 
blossoming flowers in others. We saw the miserable mud 
hovels, indicative of abject poverty, and the palatial resi- 
dences of those wallowing in wealth; we beheld the 
poverty-stricken toiling for a few cents a day, and others 
squandering their riches with the utmost prodigality. We 
visited the most fertile regions and the most barren. We 
saw some countries clothed in verdure and carpeted with 
Nature's choicest garlands ; others the most arid and 
sterile in the world, with not a tuft of green or a blade 
of grass to gladden the eye and relieve the desolate w T aste. 
We experienced the most strenuous exertion and enjoyed 
the most comfortable repose — lovely calms and tempestous 

We were confronted sometimes by extreme rudeness 
and at others enjoyed chivalrous courtesy. The most 
indifferent hotel accommodations and the most enticing 
menus were our varying lots. We traveled by land and 
water, on ships, lighters and rowboats; on swift-moving 
trains and on the slowest cars on earth; on donkeys, 
camels and ox sleds ; on the backs of Arabs and in automo- 
biles. We breathed the bracing air of the ocean and 
also inhaled nameless odors. 

We viewed with delight the picturesque islands of 
Madeira and Malta, and listened to the soft, dreamy 
melodies of their native guitara. We traversed beautiful 
Andalusia under the shadow of the Sierra Eevadas, and 
listened to the music of the rippling waves of the smiling 
Guadalquiver on its journey to the ocean. 
We beheld with wonder the gorgeous magnificence of the 
Alhambra, and sorrowed over the death of a nation that 
could create such a structure. We stood upon the Rock 
of Gibraltar and enjoyed one of the grandest views in the 
world, looking out, as we did, on two continents and two 


different seas. We saw Algiers, a picture never to be 
forgotten, with its terraces of dazzling white, its emerald 
hills, its purple haze and azure sea. 

After traversing the great Mediterranean, we sailed 
the blue JEgean. We trod the classic ground of Athens 
and marveled at the ruins of the Acropolis. We walked 
the streets of Constantinople after sailing through the 
Dardanelles, the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmora. 

We traversed the Holy Land, hallowed by so many 
sacred associations, and sailed up the mysterious JSTile. 
We stood in reverence on the shores of the Jordan, and in 
silent awe by the dark waters of the Dead Sea. We 
looked upon pyramids and the inscrutable Sphinx. 

In short, we have breathed the air of nearly every 
clime and enjoyed the most beautiful scenery; we have 
inhaled the redolence of the flowers of the Orient in all 
their beauty and exuberance ; we have contrasted the past 
with the present; we have seen people from every tribe 
and nationality, and yet — we blush not to say it — we 
returned home with the full and settled conviction that — 

"The roses nowhere bloom so white, 

As down in Virginia; 
The sunshine nowhere shines so bright, 

As in Virginia. 
The birds nowhere sing so sweet, 
And nowhere hearts so lightly beat, 
For heaven and earth seem both to meet 

Down in Virginia. 

"There is nowhere a land so fair, 

As in Virginia; 
So full of song and free of care, 

As in Virginia. 
And I believe that happy land 
The Lord prepared for mortal man, 
Is built exactly on the plan 

Of old Virginia. 


"The days are nowhere quite so long, 

As in Virginia; 
Nor quite so filled with happy song, 

As in Virginia. 
So when my time has come to die, 
Just take me back and let me lie 
Where the noble James goes rolling by, 

Down in Virginia." 





Arabic S. S 11-33, 41, 221 

Agriculture 50-57, 95, 183 

Aleazer at Seville 56 

Alhambra 60 

Arnda 63 

Apes' Hill, Gilbraltar 64 

Algiers 66 

Arab Quarter, Algiers 67 

Acropolis of Athens 75 

Athena, Statue of 76 

Athens 80 

American Missionary School in Turkey 91 

American School for Girls at Scutari 92 

American Machinery 98 

Arabs 166, 189 

Abydos 187 

Alexandria 175 

Abukir Bay 175 

Antiquity of Egypt 217 

Amsterdam 231 

Automobile— Wild Ride 231 

Antwerp 234 


"Backsheesh" 18, 126, 152, 188, , 210, 215 

Bullock Sleds 46 

Beggars at Madeira 47 

Bull Ring at Cadiz 53 

Buccaneers of Algiers 66 

11 INDEX. 

Bosphorus Shores 81 

Bartle, Rev. S. D., 41; Description of Galilee and 

Samaria 103, 205 

Baskets with False Bottoms 135 

Bethany 166 

Birds in Egypt 187 

Battle of the Saddles 188 

"Book of the Dead" 192 

Bottles 196 

Bethlehem 170 

Birthpace of Jesus 171 

Boys in Jerusalem 174 

Bay of Abukir 175 

Bingen-on-the-Rhine 227 

Brussels 235 

Blarney Castle 239, 241 

Betting on Shipboard 244 

Baron Munchausen , . 244 

Bazaars of Constantinople, 88; of Smyrna, 94; of 

Algiers, 67 ; of Cairo 214 

r C 

Consequential Lady 37 

"Caros" 46 

Church of Our Lady 46 

Church of Los Capuchinos 52 

Church of St. John, Malta, 70; at Ephesus 96 

Church of the Monks 71 

Church of the Holy Sepulchre 141 

Church of the Nativity 171 

Church of St. Ursula 229 

Children of Madeira 47 

Columbus 49-56 

Cadiz 51 

Chapel of San Carlo 70 

Costumes in Malta, 71; in Greece, 74; in Turkey, 88; 

in Egypt, 182; in Granada 59 


Curio Sellers 200 

Cathedral Church of St. Paul 72 

Cathedral at Granada, 61; at Cologne 229 

Commodore Decatur 66 

Carnival at Malta 71 

Caryatids Porch of 76 

Constantinople 81 

Cave of Seven Sleepers, Cyprus 100 

Carmel 100 

Chapel of the Crucifixion 143 

Cavalry 152 

Crocodiles 195 

Cauliflower 160 

Camels 184, 202 

Caravans 184, 191 

Cairo 202-209 

Copt, Egyptian Mason 2.11 

Cologne 229 

Cork 239 

Cedric S. S 245 

"Circus" in London 236 


Dominoes 16 

Donkeys 17, 54, 90, 97, 160, 189 

Demosthenes 77 

Dogs of Constantinople 82-84 

Diana's Temple 97 

Dead Sea 147, 165 

Doorsy, John 157 

Dispensary in Egypt 187 

Dublin 236 


English Walnuts 51 

Erechteum at Athens 76 

Ephesus, City of 95 


Esdraelon, Plain of 101, 111 

Enganim 118 

Elisha's Cave and Fountain 162 

Egyptian People 183, 194, 202 

Eagles 187 

Egypt 176, 181, 217 

English on Shipboard 243 


Funchal 46 

Funeral at Madeira 51 

Flowers at Madeira 51 

Flies in Egypt 179 

Fakirs 180 


Geraniums at Madeira 51 

Granada 57 

Gibraltar 63-65 

Garden of St. Sebastian 72 

Grecian Waters 73 

Ualilee, City of, 103; Sea of 107 

Gilboa ! 117 

Gideon's Fountain 118 

Garden of Gethsemane 153 

Goliah's Shirt 161 

Grotto of Milk 173 

Gambling at Monte Carlo 224 


"Hummingbird" Lady 37 

Husband Hunters 39 

Henry, Patrick, Speech of 40 

Hill of Mars 77 

Hill of Pnyx 77 

Hero and Leander 81 

Hagia, Sophia 87 

Holy Land 136 


Hill of Samaria 120 

Heliopolis 215 

Heidelberg 228 

Holland 231 

Hague 234 

Hotels in Jerusalem, 169; in Killarney 241 


"Interrogation-Point" Woman 39 

Irrigation at Madeira, 50; in Egypt, 179; in Holland. 233 

Island of Rhodes 100 

Island of Roda 185 

Ireland 237 

Irish Girls 241 


Judge and Donkey 17 

Jordan, John D 4.1, 54, 78 

Jezreel 117 

Jenin 118 

Joseph's Pit 119 

Jacob's Well 121 

Jaffa 128 

Joseph a Monopolist 135 

Jerusalem 137, 144 

Jews 154 

Jericho 160-162 

Jordan, the River 165 


Kansas, Traveler from 19 

Knights of Malta 68 

Kaaba at Mecca Igg 

Karnack, City of Temples 196 

Khedive 209 


Lincoln, Abraham, Honored at Sea 36 

Larder of S. S. Arabic 42 


Licorice Monopoly 95 

Lydda, Town of 136 

Luxor 186-196 

Lotus Flowers 187 

"Little Jorge" 158 

Lyons Automobile Bill 226 

London 235 


Moore, Harry T 11, 48 

Mecca 187 

Masonic Enthusiasts 30-34 

Massachusetts Ladies 36 

Masonic Association on Ship 41, 83, 157, 210 

Murillo 52 

Moorish Works in Spain 60-61 

Malta 68 

Mountain of the Bees 73 

Marathon 74 

Mars Hill 77 

Maid of Athens ^ 79 

Madeira 44-49 

Mosque of Sancta Sophia 86 

Mount Carmel ' 100-111 

Missionary Society at Nazareth 105 

Mount Tabor Ill, 116 

Mount Gerizim 121 

Mount of Olives 145 

Mosque of Omar 149 

Mohammed 151, 186, 193, 196 

Mohammedan Wedding 218 

Mummies 193, 200, 200, 214-215 

Mount of Temptation 167 

Monte Carlo 22, 222 

Mayence-on-the-Rhine 226 

Mouse Tower 227 

McAtee, J. Q 41 



New York Boaster 20 

New Jersey Pilgrim 23 

Napoleon at Madeira, 50; at Malta 71 

Nelson, Admiral 64 

Nazareth 104, 123 

Noah and his Ark 129 

Nile River, 183; Boats seen on it, 184; Nilometer, 

185; Fertility, 177; Seasons Observed 182 

Nubians 188 

Naples 219 

Nice 221-225 


Old Dominion Physician 23 

Ohio Voyager 26 

Old Maids 36-38 

Olive Trees 54 

Oriental Civilization 134 

Ostrich Farm 215 

Obelisks 216 


Personnel of Party 11 

Perley, J. Vincent. 11, 14 16, 30, 34, 41, 62, 68, 168, 166, 190, 235, 241 

Passengers on Arabic 14 

"Patriarch of Jerusalem" 34 

Pyramids of Salt in Spain 53 

Pontius Pilate, House at Seville 56,156 

Parthenon 75 

Pigeons 78, 195 

Power, Dr. F. D., Description of Plain of Esdraelon, 

102 ; Ride to Nazareth 123 

Polygamy 119,210 

Pool of Siloam 156 

Pyramids 199, 204, 216 

Pompey's Pillar 176 

Pompeii 220 

Vlll INDEX. 


"Rattler, The" 16 

"Rip Van Winkle" 26 

Romans 55, 63 

Rock of Gibraltar 64 

Robert College, Turkey 91 

Religion of Turks 92 

Rugs made at Smyrna 95 

Rhodes 100 

Ravens 161 

River Jordan 165 

Riviera 222 

Rock of Ehrenbreitstein 227 

Railroads in Spain, 54-58, 63; in Germany, 230; 

Rotterdam 231 


Sea Experiences 12, 244 

"Sunday School Class" 15, 27 

St. Louis Traveler 19 

Steamboat Steward ^ 12 

Southerner's Sadness 25 

Superstitious Crank 29 

Snobs 36 

Spinsters 36-38 

Ship's Larder 42 

Sleds Drawn by Bullocks 46 

Salt Pyramids 53 

Seville 54 

Southern Confederacy Discussed 40 

St. Paul's Bay 72 

Salamis 73 

Stadium, The 78 

Shriner in Constantinople 83 

Stamboul 86 

Sancta Sophia Mosque 88 

Sarcophagi 88 



Sultan's Wives 90 

Smyrna 93 

St. Paul at Ephesus 97 

Samaria 103 

Sanders, Col. C. C 112 

Sea of Galilee 113 

Shunem Village 117 

Samaria, Hill of, 120; the People • 121 

Shiloh, Ruins of 122 

Samson 136 

Solomon's Quarry 157 

Sphinx 198, 207 

Sunsets in Jerusalem 168 

Scarabs 201, 181 

St. John's Church, Richmond 217, 240 

Shandon Bells 239 


"Tipping" System 12, 18, 126, 152, 188, 210, 215 

Theseum, The 75 

Tabnith Sarcophagus 88 

"Turkish Delight" 89 

Turkish Ladies 89 

Temple of Diana 97 

Troy, Ancient Site 99 

Turkish Government 106, 115 

Transfiguration, Mount Ill 

Tiberias 113 

Temple of Solomon 148 

Temple of Rameses 192 

Thebes 197 

Tombs of Egyptian Kings 198 

Tomb of Seti 199 

Theatre in Cairo 212 

The Hague 234 


Undertaker's Jokes 21 



Virginia Physician 


Valley of Esdraelon 

Via Dolorosa 

Virgin Tree 




Warning to Travelers 

Washington, George 


Wines of Madeira 

"Wingless Victory" 

Women of Turkey 

Water, Impure in Orient 

Wall of Wailing 

Women of Egypt 

Wedding, of Mohammedans 


"Young Voyager" . . 11, 16, 32, 71, 97, 159, 190, 201, 213,- 
224, 240, 242 


Zorah, Birthplace of Samson 








108, 110